SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
|☒||ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934|
For the year ended December 31, 2022
|☐||TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934|
For the transition period from ________ to ________
Commission file number: 001-39274
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
400 Spectrum Center Drive, Suite 1900
Irvine, California 92618
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act:
|Title of Each Class||Trading Symbol(s)||Name of Each Exchange on which Registered|
|Ordinary Shares, par value $0.01 per share||GAN||The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC|
Securities pursuant to under Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☐ No ☒
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
|Large accelerated filer||☐||Accelerated filer||☐|
|Non-accelerated filer||☒||Smaller reporting company||☒|
|Emerging growth company||☒|
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ☐
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No ☒
The aggregate market value of the registrant’s voting and non-voting ordinary shares held by non-affiliates as of June 30, 2022, based on last sale price as reported on The Nasdaq Capital Market on that date, was approximately $118.1 million.
At March 22, 2023, there were ordinary shares outstanding.
Documents Incorporated by Reference:
Certain portions, as expressly described in this report of the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement for the 2023 Annual Shareholder Meeting, to be filed within 120 days of December 31, 2022, are incorporated by reference into Part III, Items 10-14 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
2022 ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
|Item 1A.||Risk Factors||16|
|Item 1B.||Unresolved Staff Comments||33|
|Item 3.||Legal Proceedings||33|
|Item 4.||Mine Safety Disclosures||33|
|Item 5.||Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities||34|
|Item 7.||Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations||35|
|Item 7A.||Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk||47|
|Item 8.||Financial Statements and Supplementary Data||49|
|Item 9.||Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure||79|
|Item 9A.||Controls and Procedures||79|
|Item 9B.||Other Information||81|
|Item 9C.||Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections||81|
|Item 10.||Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance||82|
|Item 11.||Executive Compensation||82|
|Item 12.||Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters||82|
|Item 13.||Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence||82|
|Item 14.||Principal Accountant Fees and Services||82|
|Item 15.||Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules||83|
|Item 16.||Form 10-K Summary||84|
Except as otherwise required by the context, references to “GAN,” “GAN Limited,” “the Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” are to GAN Limited, a Bermuda exempted company limited by shares, and its subsidiaries. References to “Coolbet” are to Vincent Group p.l.c., a Malta public limited company and its subsidiaries, which was acquired by GAN Limited on January 1, 2021.
CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains certain statements that are, or may be deemed to be, forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, that reflect our current expectations and views of future events. These forward-looking statements can be identified by words or phrases such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “should,” “anticipate,” “aim,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “is/are likely to” or other similar expressions. These forward-looking statements include, among other things, statements relating to our goals and strategies, our competitive strengths, our expectations and targets for our results of operations, our business prospects and our expansion strategy. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. Although we believe that we have a reasonable basis for each forward-looking statement, we caution you that these statements are based on our projections of the future that are subject to known and unknown risks and uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, level of activity or performance expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements, to differ.
The forward-looking statements are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions about our Company. Our actual results of operations may differ materially from the forward-looking statements as a result of risk factors described under “Item 1A. Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including, among other things:
|●||our ability to generate and sustain profitability in light of the incurrence of net losses and negative cash flows;|
|●||our ability to successfully develop, market or sell new products or adopt new technology platforms;|
|●||risks related to competition;|
|●||our ability to manage the substantial variability in our business operations and forecast our financial results in light of such variability;|
|●||risks related to our customer contracts, pursuant to which our revenues fluctuate with the use of our products or services;|
|●||risks related to our historical reliance on a small number of customers for a substantial portion of our revenues;|
|●||our ability to realize the anticipated benefits of our consummated acquisitions or investments in other companies, including our acquisition of Coolbet in January 2021;|
|●||risks related to the continued uncertainty in the global financial markets and unfavorable global economic conditions, including as a result of the global outbreak of the novel coronavirus (“COVID-19”) pandemic;|
|●||our ability to attract and retain qualified personnel;|
|●||risks related to the heavily regulated online gaming industry;|
|●||our ability to maintain good relations with our channel partners;|
|●||risks associated with our international operations and fluctuations in currency values;|
|●||risks related to unanticipated performance problems or bugs in our software product offerings; and|
|●||our ability to protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights.|
The foregoing factors should not be construed as an exhaustive list and should be read in conjunction with other cautionary statements that are included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K as well as the items set forth under “Item 1A. Risk Factors.” If one or more events related to these or other risks or uncertainties materialize, or if our underlying assumptions prove to be incorrect, actual results may differ materially from what we anticipate. Moreover, we operate in an evolving environment and new risk factors emerge from time to time. It is not possible for our management to predict all risk factors, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause our actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statement.
You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. All forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date on which it is made. We do not intend to update or revise these forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, unless the securities laws require us to do so.
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
GAN Limited is an exempted holding company organized in Bermuda and through its subsidiaries, consists of two lines of business. We are a business-to-business (“B2B”) supplier of enterprise Software-as-a-Service (“SaaS”) solutions for online casino gaming, commonly referred to as iGaming, and online sports betting applications. Beginning with our acquisition of Coolbet in January 2021, we are also a business-to-consumer (“B2C”) developer and operator of an online sports betting and casino platform, which offers individuals located in select markets in Northern Europe, Latin America and Canada access to a digital portal for engaging in sports betting, online casino games and poker.
In our B2B segment, we feature our technology platform, which we market as the GameSTACK™ internet gaming platform (“GameSTACK”). The B2B segment develops, markets and sells instances of GameSTACK, GAN Sports, and iSight Back Office technology that incorporates comprehensive player registration, account funding and back-office accounting and management tools that enable casino operators to efficiently, confidently and effectively extend their online presence. GAN Sports, our newest product offering following the acquisition of Coolbet, launched in September 2022 and aims to provide a best-in-class B2B sports betting product in the U.S. and Canada through self-service kiosks on-premises at land-based casinos as well as mobile versions. Our GameSTACK platform and related support services are geared towards casino operators, with an emphasis on land-based commercial and tribal casinos in the United States, although we have deployed our platform in other geographies, such as the United Kingdom, Italy, Australia, and Canada. We also market our platform to gaming partners, such as online sportsbooks and gaming content developers, who provide us with an indirect channel into casino operators. This segment is primarily focused on enabling the U.S. casino industry’s ongoing digital transformation, which is accelerating following the repeal of a federal ban on sports betting in May 2018. Our customers rely on our platform to run their online casinos and sportsbooks legally, profitably and with engaging content. GameSTACK and GAN Sports enables us to offer a turnkey technology solution for regulated real money internet gambling (“real money iGaming” or “RMiG”), online sports betting, as well as (“simulated gaming” or “SIM”).
In our B2C segment, we operate a B2C casino and sports betting platform doing business as “Coolbet” that is accessible for gambling through the website www.coolbet.com in markets across Northern Europe, Latin America and Canada with over 1.2 million registered customers as of December 31, 2022. Coolbet holds gambling licenses in Estonia, Malta, Sweden, Canada, and Mexico. The majority of Coolbet’s website traffic comes from mobile customers and each region features customized interfaces with localized product offerings and local language support teams. In 2022, our B2C revenue was generated from online casino games, online sports betting and online peer-to-peer poker, which comprised 54%, 43% and 3% of total revenue, respectively. B2C revenue increased 11.3% from $78.6 million in 2021 to $87.5 million in 2022. In addition to providing complementary technology to our B2B segment, we believe our B2C segment provides diversification of revenue streams and growth opportunities in international markets.
We were an early pioneer of online gaming. We commenced operations in 2002 in the United Kingdom and first generated revenue in December 2002. Our initial product allowed end user residents of the United Kingdom to create an online account, deposit money into that account and to compete against each other online in competitions of skill. We offered online games of skill to residents of the United Kingdom under the operation of the United Kingdom’s applicable legislation, the Lotteries & Amusements Act 1976 (s.14), which permitted competitions of skill.
Beginning in 2004, we secured our first major customers in the United Kingdom and subsequently launched our first real money casino gambling games through a license procured from the United Kingdom Gambling Commission following the passage of the Gambling Act 2005 which permitted companies in the United Kingdom to develop software intended for enabling internet gambling. In 2008 we began securing our first major customers in Italy and deployed our technology platform in Rome, Italy and served internet gaming content to several major Italian operators of regulated internet sports betting and gaming.
In 2010, we released the first version of our GameSTACK enterprise software platform for our first platform customer to launch a new internet gambling business in Europe as a complement to existing retail bingo gaming business, and following the launch of an internet casino for a casino operator customer operating on the GameSTACK platform in the State of New Jersey in 2013, we were the first technology platform provider to accept and process a deposit online in the State of New Jersey and processed the first legal online bet on our proprietary blackjack game. Our casino operators have continued to rely on GameSTACK to launch their online casinos in new and existing U.S. states that adopted applicable legislation.
In May 2020, GAN Limited completed a reorganization and share exchange pursuant to which we acquired all of the outstanding ordinary shares of GAN plc and became the parent company of GAN plc. Subsequently, GAN plc changed its name to GAN (UK) Limited. Additionally, in May 2020, we completed our U.S. initial public offering through which we sold an aggregate of 7,337,000 ordinary shares at a price per share of $8.50 and received gross proceeds of $62.4 million.
In November 2020, we entered into a share exchange agreement (the “Share Exchange Agreement”), pursuant to which we agreed to acquire all of the outstanding equity in Vincent Group p.l.c., a Malta public limited company doing business as “Coolbet” in exchange for cash and ordinary shares. In December 2020, we completed a secondary public offering, issuing 6,790,956 ordinary shares in exchange for net proceeds of $98.5 million after underwriting discounts and commissions, and other offering expenses. We used the proceeds from this offering to fund the cash portion of the purchase price payable to the former Coolbet shareholders. On January 1, 2021, we completed the acquisition of Coolbet for a total purchase price of $218.1 million, comprised of a cash payment of $111.1 million, the issuance of 5,260,516 ordinary shares (valued at $106.7 million) and the issuance of replacement equity awards (valued at $0.3 million).
In 2022, we began to expand both our B2B and B2C footprints into other countries in North America. In April 2022, we launched a B2B customer on our GameSTACK technology platform in the Ontario, Canada market and in January 2023 we launched our Coolbet B2C casino in the regulated Mexican market.
In September 2022 we launched GAN Sports, a modern sportsbook technology platform based on the award-winning Coolbet technology that has been adapted for the U.S. B2B market. In February 2023, we launched GAN Sports, an in-house online and retail sports betting technology platform, on over 100 kiosks at the Encore Boston Harbor WynnBET sportsbook.
iGaming and Online Sportsbook Industry and Background
On May 14, 2018, the Supreme Court of the United States overturned the Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act (“PASPA”), which since 1992 had prevented U.S. states, aside from Nevada, Delaware and Oregon from engaging in the regulation and taxation of sports betting activities at the intrastate level. The ruling paved the way for U.S. states to elect individually whether to allow for regulated sports betting and, by extension, real money iGaming within their borders. Prior to the Supreme Court of the United States overturning PASPA, U.S. casino operators were largely limited to retail slot and table gaming operations and, in the online channel, to simulated gaming operations offering no prospect for real money winnings.
On June 22, 2021, the Parliament of Canada passed Bill C-218 - the Safe and Regulated Sports Betting Act, which removed the Canadian federal ban on domestic sportsbook betting in Canada, opening its provinces to allow single-game sports betting, and in April 2022 Ontario became the first province in Canada to regulate online gambling.
As of December 31, 2022, more than 30 U.S. states have approved legalized sports betting, along with Washington D.C., and real money iGaming is also presently legal in seven states. Each state or jurisdiction has unique regulatory and licensure requirements, and our ability to rapidly customize deployments and submit expeditiously for individual state gaming licensure has been a vital contributor to our success in the U.S. market. We enable our customers to deploy iGaming and online sportsbook offerings to their end users quickly, capturing valuable early-mover advantages in their relevant markets, such as the January 2021 launch in Michigan and the April 2022 launch in Ontario, Canada. We are presently licensed or approved to operate our RMiG platform in more than a dozen U.S. states, as well as Ontario, Canada and plan to continue to evaluate new opportunities to provide services in additional U.S. states 2023 and beyond.
Online sports betting deployment models can vary widely due to state-specific regulatory and licensing mandates. However, licensed casino operators with land-based retail facilities tend to partner with online sportsbook operators in order to accelerate online customer acquisition. These operators generally rely on a technology platform, such as GameSTACK, for player onboarding, player account management, payment processing and various back-office tools designed to maintain regulatory compliance and real-time reporting. Additionally, our technology for online sportsbooks incorporates a sports betting engine for pricing, trade execution and risk management.
In order to monetize online and offline players in a coherent manner, casino operators pursue omnichannel marketing strategies that require deep integration of hardware and software elements, including computing infrastructure, customer relationship management, casino management system and loyalty program management. Because of the complexity in deploying and maintaining iGaming and online sports betting infrastructures, casino operators may rely on third-party service providers to operate and maintain all or part of the technology infrastructure on their behalf.
Our Operating Models
Our product strategy for GameSTACK and GAN Sports is to provide a unified, flexible and highly scalable platform that can be rapidly deployed for RMiG and online sports betting. In addition to our platform, we offer a range of development, marketing and customer support services designed to fast-track deployments and provide ongoing operational support following commercial launch.
Our GameSTACK platform and related support services are designed to help our customers rapidly launch and scale their iGaming and online sportsbook operations. Our iGaming offerings support both social, or “freemium,” simulated online casino gaming in regulated and unregulated markets as well as RMiG for deployment in regulated markets. We measure the level of player engagement through key performance measures including Gross Operator Revenue, which we define as the sum of our B2B corporate customers’ gross revenue from SIM, gross gaming revenue from RMiG, and gross sports wins from sportsbook offerings, which we track for both SIM and RMiG operations.
Our GameSTACK customer base in the United States includes large regional operators as well as individual tribal casino operators that, combined, operate over 100 retail casino properties, racetracks and online sportsbooks. The largest portion of our U.S. business is in real money internet gambling with operators in the U.S. states where either (or both) internet casino gaming and sports betting are permitted by regulation.
We believe there is a large and growing number of additional potential new customers for GameSTACK in selected U.S. states that have formally passed online sports betting but have not yet implemented a regulatory framework for governing online real money iGaming in these states. Also, we believe that as newly regulated U.S. states generate real tax revenue for their respective state treasuries that more states will evaluate, develop, and pass online gaming legislation. The Company has the unique ability to absorb and support this expansion. For example, in January 2021, we simultaneously launched three operators online in Michigan, including our existing customer, FanDuel Group, Inc.’s (“FanDuel”) online casino and two new customers, Churchill Downs’ brand TwinSpires and Wynn Resorts’ WynnBET.
Our principal B2C offerings are real-money online sports betting, online casino and peer-to-peer poker. We offer these products directly to the end customer through our website, which is also available on tablet and mobile devices in markets predominantly across Northern Europe and Latin America. In order to attract and retain customers, we seek to provide a high-quality customer experience through a high speed mobile website, excellent customer service and attractive odds. With our own technology and sportsbook software, and in cooperation with recognized providers for odds data and game content, we strive to provide the best online sportsbook and iGaming offering available, and believe that positive word of mouth referrals allowed us to increase our revenues and acquire customers at a lower cost than our competitors.
Our Products and Service Offerings
B2B GameSTACK Platform, Development and Support Services
GameSTACK is a turnkey platform comprising proprietary enterprise software, computer hardware and specific proprietary software components such as our iSight Back Office tool (“iSight”) and the iBridge Framework. GameSTACK is a comprehensive proprietary software platform providing our customers with account set-up, customer services facilitation, comprehensive player marketing tools, and the ability to deliver converged gambling across land-based retail casinos and the internet. While developing GameSTACK, we remained fully committed to building an evergreen and agile software architecture forged from a single code base, ensuring that developments in game mechanics, new back-office functionalities and integrations with leading third-party software could be capitalized on by our customers across all gameplay modalities. Importantly, we developed our code to operate in multiple jurisdictions and under different regulatory requirements, giving us the ability to leverage different configurations quickly to comply with newly regulated markets.
GameSTACK serves as the technical hub of our customers’ online gaming presence. The platform provides the foundational technology and back-office tools necessary for a successful consumer experience, including intuitive player account activation, sophisticated payment services, geolocation, marketing, loyalty club linking and real-time analytics and reporting. The core of the GameSTACK platform is its player account management system, in which highly sensitive consumer and player activity data is stored and processed. This information is the layer of any casino operator’s online technology deployment that becomes the focal point of regulatory licensure since it is the fortified vault of player data and privacy. We are the trusted custodian of player transactional data and provide direct visibility into wagering activity, which allows us to deploy proprietary player analysis models to assist our casino operator customers in predicting and identifying, over time, their highest-value players. Our casino operator customers can rely on our data models to best direct their retention marketing investments towards specific customer profiles, thereby optimizing player loyalty and therefore player value. GameSTACK also relies on a flexible integration services layer in order to integrate easily with other essential third-party systems such as casino management systems, remote gaming servers, sports betting engines, and marketing services applications.
Real Money iGaming
Our RMiG instances of GameSTACK incorporate comprehensive player registration, account funding and back-office accounting and management tools that enable our casino operator customers to efficiently, confidently and effectively extend their presence online. For the individual players, our software enables them to create a regulatory-compliant iGaming account online, have their credentials properly validated in order to activate their account, deposit money into their account and proceed to wager that money on any content we provide on the relevant casino operator’s website or mobile app. The online content may comprise a casino game such as roulette, blackjack or a casino slot machine game. Content may also comprise a myriad of sporting events on which the diverse outcomes can be wagered on.
We have optimized GameSTACK for RMiG, and in particular, U.S. internet casino gaming with geolocation tracking, Know-Your-Customer processes and a market-leading U.S. payments platform. Payment aggregation services within GameSTACK integrate with a wide range of third-party payment processors while simultaneously allowing our casino operators to accept cash deposits onsite within their retail casino properties, which are credited to the players’ online account.
Our RMiG instances of GameSTACK incorporate comprehensive player registration, account funding and back-office accounting and management tools. In the United States, real money iGaming applications must comply with the Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act of 2006 and with the federal Wire Act of 1961. Consequently, our RMiG customers must physically deploy our platform within their state’s borders, typically inside their retail casino premises in order to comply with intrastate regulatory mandates. Our customers generally procure the computer hardware on which our software is deployed inside of our customers’ data centers.
GAN Sports retail and online sportsbook
GAN Sports, our newest product offering following the acquisition of Coolbet, is offered as an online and retail solution to U.S. casino operators as a complete turnkey solution for sports betting technology. The GAN Sports retail offering allows our customers to launch and operate their sportsbooks on their properties through self-service kiosks, with the ability to add an on-premises or statewide mobile versions.
Super Remote Gaming Server
GameSTACK may also be configured as a “super” remote gaming server (“Super RGS”), otherwise known as a remote gaming server aggregator, which can be deployed on behalf of existing internet casino operators in various U.S. states that are operating on their own proprietary or third-party platform. Super RGS provides these operators with access to all of our proprietary games, our current (and all future) remote gaming server integrations, as well as our content library of more than 4,000 internet casino games. Super RGS creates a technical and commercial vehicle for us to deliver our proprietary casino content and third-party game content across the entirety of the relevant U.S. intrastate markets. Our Super RGS provides for a cost and time savings for new and existing market operators to more efficiently manage their game content.
Our SIM product is custom-designed for the U.S. casino operators seeking to bring their retail brand online and create a new internet gaming experience delivered as an amenity to their players and leveraging their on-property rewards program using the common code base shared with GameSTACK for RMiG. For SIM implementations, we design the casino operator’s mobile application and website with a branded experience that is consistent with the casino operator’s brand and market positioning. Our iSight technology provides management tools and streamlines player registration and account funding. We generally host our customers’ SIM operations on a combination of proprietary and cloud servers.
iSight Back Office
GameSTACK provides operators with a range of day-to-day back-office management tools along with integration application program interfaces for third-party casino management systems. With the iSight management tool, our casino operators have complete control over their content selection, player communications, website layout, process automation and real-time analytics.
Our proprietary iBridge Framework is a core feature of our platform, enabling operators to engage online players with innovative loyalty offers. iBridge provides our operator customers the ability to automatically verify whether a new online player is part of an existing offline loyalty database. iBridge allows operators to unite in-casino complimentary items and services, loyalty points and other offers with online play. This enables casino operators to engage their customers online, reinforcing brand loyalty, as well as encouraging online players to visit retail properties. Our platform integrates with a variety of third-party casino management systems, eliminating the need for operators to create and maintain two disparate databases as their online businesses grows.
Because we are the trusted custodian of our customers’ end user players’ aggregated and anonymized transactional data originated and stored within our platform, we have direct visibility into a players’ activity and can predict which characteristics will contribute to a player becoming amongst the highest-value players of our customers over time. This helps our customers to direct their retention marketing investments to specific player profiles. Over the course of our history, we have accumulated large data sets from which we have extracted substantial analytical insights for the benefit of our customers, who rely on our reporting and analytics capabilities to help them to optimize their marketing spend as well as to maximize the value of their loyalty programs.
We provide platform development services, which consist of initial deployment of gaming hosting facilities and ongoing development services to provide updates to the software for enhanced functionality or customization.
Customer Support Services
We provide a range of term-based operational services to support our customers’ online gaming activities. Our premier offering is a full turnkey combination of marketing services and customer support services. Our managed services teams provide user acquisition, customer retention management, and customer functions for our operator customers to help them in acquiring and retaining players. These services are designed to fast-track deployments and provide ongoing operational support following commercial launch for our customers. We offer marketing and customer services to our casino operator customers to support their deployment of our RMiG and SIM solutions. Our tailored customer support services include player customer support across email, phone and live chat, marketing agency services and network management with 24/7 uptime guarantee.
B2C Product Offerings
We operate the B2C gaming site www.coolbet.com outside of the U.S., which predominantly operates in select Northern Europe and Latin America markets. The site offers sports betting, poker, casino, live casino and virtual sports. Coolbet.com is built on proprietary software, including a proprietary sportsbook engine and risk management tools, enabling us to offer a highly differentiated entertainment experience when compared to other B2C gaming sites who rely on third-party technology stacks. Because we predominantly rely on in-house technology, we can rapidly enter new international markets with deeply local and tailor made content. Our B2C product offerings include:
We manage an award-winning online sportsbook allowing customers to place various types of wagers on the outcome of sporting events around the world. We operate as the bookmaker and offer a large variety of betting types in a given event, including both pre-match and in-play (placed after a sports event has begun) wagers. We offer the ability to place bets on all major sports including soccer, basketball, baseball, American football, ice hockey and tennis, as well as emerging sports such as eSports and smaller sports. Coolbet’s proprietary sportsbook features specialist odds compiled by in-house product experts, which leads to more attractive odds and offers on local sports events and a higher value proposition for customers.
We offer thousands of digital and live dealer casino games provided by recognized game content creators, integrated into our proprietary technology. The casino product features many proprietary features and functionalities driving customer engagement. Live Casino, through its digital online casino offering in selected markets, allows customers to place wagers and play games through a real-time streaming video solution. Coolbet.com offers customers a catalog of over 3,000 third-party iGaming titles across skill-based games such as Poker and chance-based games, such as digital slot machines and table games such as Blackjack and Roulette.
Poker allows registered customers to play poker against each other in cash games and tournaments directly on the website www.coolbet.com in real-time.
Key elements of our growth strategy include:
Growing GAN Sports, primarily through retail sports betting. GAN Sports is a modern sportsbook technology platform built upon the award-winning Coolbet technology that has been adapted for the U.S. B2B market. GAN Sports successfully debuted for Island View Casino in Gulfport, Mississippi on September 27, 2022. The second deployment, at the WynnBET Sportsbook at Encore Boston Harbor, occurred on Tuesday, January 31, 2023. We expect to deploy GAN Sports for Station Casinos LLC (“Station Casinos” or “Station”) in 2023 throughout the Las Vegas local market, subject to regulatory approval. The Las Vegas local gaming market is the second largest gaming market in the United States. We intend to deliver installations of GAN Sports with existing and new customers in regulated U.S. gaming markets, with existing and new customers for markets that legalize sports betting, and replace competitor’s product offerings in existing markets.
Supporting our existing B2B customers as they continue to scale their respective iGaming and online sportsbook and retail gaming operations. Gross Operator Revenue generated on our platform in 2022 increased by 32.9% to $1,224.4 million in 2022, up from $921.1 million in 2021. As our customers’ online businesses continue to grow, we intend to deploy the necessary additional internal resources to support their omnichannel requirements. We will, for instance, continue to invest in our GameSTACK platform’s functionality by expanding the gaming content library and third-party integrations, and will move expeditiously to obtain regulatory approvals to operate in new U.S. states. Additionally, our new B2B GAN Sports offering allows us to compete as a full enterprise solution.
Continue to grow our B2C revenues. Coolbet’s revenue increased by 11.3% to $87.5 million in 2022, up from $78.6 million in 2021. We intend to further augment this growth by increasing market share in our existing markets through increased brand building and marketing efficiencies while continuing to add: (i) new and increasingly popular wagering options, (ii) more localized sporting event content in our existing jurisdictions, and (iii) innovative and popular games in our casino library.
Securing new B2B casino operator customers in existing and new regulated markets. We continuously engage with new casino operators in U.S. states that have adopted regulated forms of RMiG and online sports betting, and are investing in sales and marketing initiatives to aggressively pursue new deployment opportunities of our enterprise solutions, including our GAN Sports mobile and retail solutions as well as GameSTACK.
Growing our international business. In addition to our focus on the U.S. market, we intend to expand our B2C business in select Latin American markets such as Mexico. Coolbet’s B2C model has operated at scale primarily in Northern Europe and Latin America and provides us with a fast-growing international strategy incremental to our B2B international market presence.
We operate in a global and dynamic market and compete with a variety of organizations that offer services similar to those that we offer. Our B2B operations face competition primarily from: (i) online casino content suppliers that provide content direct to consumers; (ii) retail casino operators that develop their own proprietary online gaming capabilities; and (iii) other similar existing or developing technology providers that develop competing platforms.
We believe the principal competitive factors in our B2B operations include rapid deployment, ease of integration with existing and future content and gaming, ease of user registration and conversion, regulatory compliance, data security, back office management systems, reliability, and platform extensibility.
Our B2C operations compete against a variety of online sportsbook and casino operators, which range from large international organizations with greater advertising and marketing resources to local players that provide specific opportunities in local markets.
We believe the principal competitive factors in our B2C operations include the overall customer mobile and online experience, better and more reliable odds making, ease of use and our customer service.
Customers and Ecosystem
Our principal B2B customers are retail casino operators and online casino brands.
Our retail casino operator customers typically require a regulatory compliant and complete enterprise technology solution provider for setting up, launching and operating an internet gaming business to drive incremental and complementary revenues to their existing retail gaming business. When a U.S. casino looks to expand online, there is a small group of potential technology vendors available to serve their needs, and an even smaller subset of companies which are B2B-only business and fully licensed for U.S. internet gaming. We believe we are one of the few companies whose operational know-how and proven track record of excellence represent a substantial competitive advantage. In addition, we believe our strategic U.S. patent covering the important linkage of an iGaming account with a land-based casino rewards account provides us with an additional competitive advantage.
New retail and online casino operator customers who use our GAN Sports and GameSTACK enterprise solutions require a cutting-edge platform and sportsbook, often to replace their existing technology. Our full enterprise solution, including retail sports, mobile sports, and platform technologies, provides our customers with flexibility to meet their specific needs, from customers that require an all-encompassing market, customer, and sports trading services solution, to those larger self-managed operator customers looking to operate on a cutting-edge technology. Beyond our GAN Sports sportsbook content, by proactively investing in development resources, we have brought together within GameSTACK a solution which offers the leading service providers spanning payment processing, pre-paid card services, age and identity verification, and geolocation, providing our customers with a best-in-class solution from end-to-end, right out of the box.
The GAN family of casino operator customers represent leading U.S. gaming groups, both retail and online. Some of our casino operator customers utilize our GameSTACK platform specifically for real money iGaming or online social casino, while others utilize our full enterprise solution for RMiG as well as retail and mobile sportsbook. Whether these customer utilize our technology for some or all of their needs, our customers own retail operations spanning over 100 retail locations, operate tens of thousands of slot machine units on their casino gaming floors, and possess millions of dedicated loyalty club card holding players within their loyalty program databases.
For the year ended December 31, 2022, one of our customers, FanDuel, accounted for 20.9% of our total revenue. Beginning in 2013, we partnered with FanDuel’s majority shareholder, Flutter Entertainment plc (formerly known as PaddyPower Betfair plc), to support FanDuel’s rapid deployment of online sports betting sites in selected states that had legalized single-game sports betting. Under our current commercial agreements, we provide access to the GameSTACK platform and provide development and support services to FanDuel in the U.S. and Ontario, Canada.
Our U.S. commercial agreement with FanDuel provided that we were the exclusive provider of their casino gaming operations for a three year period, which exclusivity ended in January 2023. Following the exclusivity period, FanDuel has the right to use other casino gaming solutions, subject to a requirement to pay us revenue calculated as a certain percentage of their net gaming revenue from RMiG operations. Accordingly, we could experience a significant decline in our revenue now that the exclusivity period has expired. We currently support FanDuel’s RMiG casino operations in the U.S. states of Connecticut, Michigan, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. Our current U.S. commercial contract with FanDuel expires in January 2025.
Our B2C casino and sports betting platform is accessible for wagering through the website www.coolbet.com in markets across Northern Europe, Latin America, and Canada. Coolbet.com originally launched May 2016 and as of December 31, 2022, had over 1.2 million registered customers. The majority of website traffic comes from mobile customers and each region features customized interfaces with localized product offerings and local language support teams.
Our online sports betting operations experience seasonality based on the relative popularity of certain sporting events, in particular with respect to local and international football seasons and high-profile international and regional tournaments. This seasonality could be exacerbated by cancellations of sporting events in addition to off-seasons, but can also provide increased volume during high-volume events such as the World Cup and overlapping sports calendars.
Intellectual Property Rights
We rely on a combination of patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret laws in the United States and other jurisdictions, as well as license agreements and other contractual protections, to protect our proprietary technology. We also rely on a number of registered and unregistered trademarks to protect our brand.
As of December 31, 2022, we had one registered patent in the United States and two registered trademarks in the United Kingdom relating to our proprietary technology. We hold a U.S. patent with a term of 20 years, which expires in 2033, that covers the integration of a retail casino’s on-property rewards and loyalty program with an internet wagering experience, whether offered for real money or virtual-based social casino gaming. Because of the tendency for non-licensed states to implement social casino gaming as an alternative or precursor to RMiG, and our ability to legitimately and comprehensively integrate the unique ability to connect existing retail rewards program with an online gaming experience, we believe that our intellectual property provides a key competitive advantage.
We seek to protect our intellectual property rights by implementing a policy that requires our employees and independent contractors involved in development of intellectual property to enter into agreements acknowledging that all intellectual property generated or conceived by them on our behalf are our property, and assigning to us any rights that they may claim or otherwise have in those works or property, to the extent allowable under applicable law. Despite our efforts to protect our technology and proprietary rights through intellectual property registrations, licenses and contractual protections, unauthorized parties may still copy or otherwise obtain and use our software and technology. We may also face allegations in the future that we have infringed the intellectual property rights of third parties, including our competitors and non-practicing entities.
We are subject to various U.S. and foreign laws and regulations that affect our ability to operate in the gaming and entertainment industry, in particular in the online gaming industry. These industries are generally subject to extensive and evolving regulations that could change based on political and social norms and that could be interpreted or enforced in ways that could negatively impact our business. Regulatory agencies in each of our operating markets continue to examine a wide variety of issues impacting the iGaming and sports betting industries, and consequently the laws and regulations governing our business could be modified or could be interpreted differently in the future, or new laws and regulations could be enacted. Material changes, new laws or regulations, or material differences in interpretations by courts or governmental authorities could cause us to incur substantial additional compliance costs and adversely affect our operating results. The primary means of enforcement of such regulations is through regulatory licenses.
Our B2B operations are licensed and regulated by the United Kingdom (“U.K.”) Gambling Commission, the Amministrazione autonoma dei monopoli di Stato (Autonomous Administration of State Monopolies) in Italy, the Alcohol and Gaming Commission of Ontario in Canada, the New Jersey Division of Gaming Enforcement, the Pennsylvania Gaming Control Board, the Indiana Gaming Commission, the West Virginia Lottery Commission, the Michigan Gaming Control Board, the Tennessee Education Lottery Corporation, the Colorado Department of Revenue Division of Gaming, the Arizona Department of Gaming, the Connecticut Department of Consumer Protection — Gaming Division, the Mississippi Gaming Commission, the Arkansas Racing Commission, the Massachusetts Gaming Commission, the Ohio Casino Control Commission, and the Oregon Siletz Tribal Gaming Commission, and Oregon State Police Gaming Enforcement Division. Entry into new geographies will require us to engage with additional regulatory authorities.
Our B2C operations are also required to hold licenses in several jurisdictions. We hold gaming licenses in Estonia, Malta, Sweden, and Ontario, Canada. Our B2C sportsbook technology and technical platform is certified by an accredited third-party according to the licensing requirements of the regulatory authorities of Estonia, Malta, Sweden, and Ontario, Canada. We also have customers in jurisdictions that currently do not have a local licensing scheme. A number of these jurisdictions are evaluating the adoption of a local licensing scheme for the online sports betting and gaming operations that we currently offer. If regulations requiring licensure are adopted in those jurisdictions, we intend to apply for licensing, but we cannot be assured that we will receive licenses in each instance or that changes in regulation will not adversely impact our business.
We are required to secure licenses to operate in each new jurisdiction where we conduct business and will need to secure additional licenses in order to expand operations to new markets. In newly regulated markets, new licensing regimes may impose licensing conditions, such as the requirement to locate significant technical infrastructure within the relevant territory or establish real-time data interfaces with the regulator that present operational challenges or may stop the licensee from being able to offer the full range of our products. Certain jurisdictions require us to hold a distributor license, while in other jurisdictions we need to qualify for a vendor license to supply our licensed customers. The licensing process can be burdensome and lengthy, depending on the local jurisdiction and their relative ability to move quickly, which is outside our control. Some jurisdictions will allow us to operate on a provisional license while the regulators process our applications. Other jurisdictions require full licensure prior to commencing operations. Accordingly, even as new regulated markets emerge, it is difficult to predict how quickly we will be able to derive revenues in such jurisdictions.
Data Protection and Privacy
As part of our operations, we establish player accounts and receive personal and financial information. Accordingly, our operations are subject to privacy and data protection regulation in the United States, the U.K., the European Union, Asia Pacific, and elsewhere. These laws are rapidly developing and changing. The European Union adopted a comprehensive General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), which came into effect in May 2018, as supplemented by any national laws (such as the Data Protection Act 2018 in the U.K.) and further implemented through binding guidance from the European Data Protection Board. In the United States, several states have adopted revised legislation to expand data breach notification rules and to mirror some of the protections provided by the GDPR. Some states, including California, Colorado, and Connecticut have adopted data protection legislation that requires companies to make significant changes in their data processing operations.
We have developed and implemented an internal compliance program designed to ensure that we comply with legal and regulatory requirements imposed on us in connection with our gaming operations. Our internal compliance program focuses, among other things, on ensuring we comply with applicable licensing requirements and local gaming regulations. In addition, we plan to introduce a dedicated data protection officer and compliance officer to strengthen the overall compliance capabilities of the organization.
Additionally, we use various methods and tools across our operations such as geolocation blocking, which restricts access based on a user’s geographical location determined through a series of data points such as mobile devices and Wi-Fi networks; age verification to ensure our users are of a certain age to participate; routine monitoring of user activity; and risk-based user due diligence to ensure player funds are legitimately derived. We have a zero-tolerance approach to money laundering, terrorist financing, fraud and collusion. All of our games and platforms are certified and tested by various private accreditation organizations, such as, the New Jersey Division of Gaming Enforcement’s technical testing laboratory and the Gaming Laboratories International, which is a leading industry provider for online gaming testing and certification.
While we are firmly committed to full compliance with all applicable laws and have developed appropriate policies and procedures to comply with the requirements of the evolving regulatory regimes, we cannot provide assurance that our compliance program will prevent all violations of applicable laws or regulations, or that a violation by us or our personnel will not result in a monetary fine or suspension or revocation of one or more of our licenses.
We maintain an open, honest and responsible approach towards our stakeholders, which include our employees, suppliers, customers, investors and the wider community. As both a B2B provider of games of skill and chance in regulated intrastate internet gaming markets, we have placed our responsible gaming policies and tools at the core of our vision to provide industry-leading entertainment in a socially responsible fashion. Our GameSTACK software platform has a myriad of features for detection and prevention of problem gambling as well as offering tools to end user players to limit their gaming activities online, in compliance with the challenging technical requirements of the U.S. states we are licensed in, as well as other jurisdictions.
Our platform services enable our casino operators to offer their players an array of tools to control their spending, including deposit limits, wagering value limits, wagering frequency limits, time limits, definable self-exclusion and/or cooling-off periods. This, coupled with sophisticated reporting and analytics, allows operators to identify potentially compulsive behavior and take the required action to ensure the protection of any vulnerable players in line with their operating requirements in the relevant intrastate gaming market. Our teams are extensively trained in the area of responsible gaming, to assist end user players displaying signs of gambling addiction and guide them in the correct direction to seek assistance. We also, in conjunction with our customers and third-party service partners, provide robust age verification processes to ensure that no minors can access the gaming opportunities provided on our customer’s websites.
Human Capital Resources
We are committed to investing in our employees while nurturing a work environment that fosters global and cross functional collaboration. Our leadership team actively works to attract, develop, and retain talent from a range of backgrounds and experiences.
Our Global Workforce
As of December 31, 2022, we had 704 total employees, of which 701 were full-time and 3 were part-time. Approximately 88% of these employees were located outside the United States. The majority of our employees are working within the operations function, which includes the majority of the technical and product employees. The charts below show our global employee population by region and operational function.
|Workforce by Region:|
|Rest of World||12|
|Workforce by Function:|
As we continue to maintain our footprint across multiple countries, we have refocused efforts on building processes and systems that encourage our employees to adopt a global mindset and ways of working. This refocus means creating more efficient methods for collaborating across multiple time zones and making the time to hone communication skills to further productive and interactive working relationships. This effort also translates to offering programs and employees events at a worldwide scale where all employees are able to bond over shared interests and experiences.
Diversity and Inclusion
A diverse global workforce and an equality, inclusive, and belonging culture is our commitment to the current and future employees. We are committed to promote diversity and inclusion in all our policies, practices, and actions such as hiring, purchasing, and general business practices. We seek to establish an environment of respect and understanding in the workplace and a culture that values and reflects the diverse components of our employees and the communities in which we operate. This past year we implemented a global training on cultural awareness and communication in the workplace among company leaders and managers. We aim to expand this offering to every employee and include the training as part of our annual learning curriculum in the coming year.
Pay and Benefits
We continue to offer market-based, competitive wages and benefits in all markets where we compete for talent. The pay structure has evolved to be positioned around the market median within each market, with variances based on knowledge, skills, years of experience, and performance. We regularly evaluate pay equity, expanding our review to include race/ethnicity in addition to gender. In addition to base wages, our compensation and benefit programs, which vary by country, include short-term incentives, long-term incentives (e.g., cash and share-based awards), employee savings plans with providers for company matching, healthcare and insurance benefits (in the United States), health savings spending accounts with providers for company matching (in the United States), paid time off, leave options, and employee assistance programs. We also encourage our employees to focus on their overall wellness. In 2022, we expanded our traditional monthly fitness reimbursements to include exercise equipment, wellness programs and treatments, and app subscriptions in support of nutrition, behavior based health or activities that encourage movement. We also respect our employees’ needs for flexibility and balance between work and life. We support a flexible working model where employees may work from the office or from home. We also continue to offer support to employees who work from home by providing reimbursement for work related expenses.
Workforce Health and Safety
In 2022, our employees indicated a need for flexibility in where they work. In response, we moved to a model that adapted to the workplace culture and working needs per country. For example, in the United States and United Kingdom, we moved to a remote-first working structure and substantially reduced our office footprint. In Estonia and Bulgaria, employees desire in-office collaboration and are in the office several days a week based on the team’s working schedule.
It’s our goal to continue to provide an environment where our employees can be the best versions of themselves and have the support they need to deliver extraordinary results for themselves and our company. Throughout 2022, we expanded our employee engagement programming to accommodate local gatherings where we have a concentrated employee base. For other locales with a much more distributed workforce, virtual group and team events were offered. We also held several global events to build a sense of company community.
Information about Segment and Geographic Revenue
Our segment and geographic revenue information is described in Note 13 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this report.
We make available free of charge (other than an investor’s own internet access charges) through our internet website (https://www.investors.gan.com) our Annual Report on Form 10-K and other reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). We are not including the information contained on our website as part of or incorporating it by reference into, this Annual Report on Form 10-K. In addition, the SEC maintains an internet site, https://www.sec.gov, that includes filings of and information about issuers that file electronically with the SEC.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and information below, as well as all other information included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including our consolidated statements, the notes thereto and the section entitled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” before you decide to purchase shares of our common stock. Below, we describe risks that we currently believe are the material risks in connection with our operations. These are not the only risks we face; we are subject to risks that are currently unknown to us, or that we may currently believe are remote or immaterial. If any of these risks or events occurs, our business prospects, financial condition, stock price, and operating results could be harmed.
Summary of the Material Risks Associated with our Business
|●||We have incurred net losses in the past with negative cash flows and may not be able to generate and sustain profitability or sufficient liquidity.|
|●||We operate in a rapidly evolving industry and if we fail to successfully develop, market or sell new products or adopt new technology platforms, it could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.|
|●||The online gaming industry is highly competitive, and if we fail to compete effectively, we could experience price reductions, reduced margins or loss of market share.|
|●||Our business operations are subject to substantial variability, which may make it more difficult for us to forecast our financial results, and may negatively impact how investors review our results or prospects.|
|●||Under our revenue arrangements, if existing customers do not continue the use of our products or services, our results of operations could be materially adversely affected.|
|●||We have historically relied on a small number of customers for a substantial portion of our revenues.|
|●||A reduction in discretionary consumer spending, from an economic downturn or disruption of financial markets or other factors, could negatively impact our financial performance.|
|●||Macroeconomic conditions can materially adversely affect the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition.|
|●||We face the risk of fraud, theft, and cheating.|
|●||We face cyber security risks that could result in damage to our reputation and/or subject us to fines, payment of damages, lawsuits and restrictions on our use of data.|
|●||Systems failures and resulting interruptions in the availability of our websites, applications, products, or services could harm our business.|
|●||Our business strategy anticipates substantial growth, and if we fail to adequately scale product offerings and manage our entry into new territories, our business and reputation may be harmed.|
|●||We rely on relationships with third-party content providers for a significant portion of our revenue.|
|●||If we are unable to protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights, our competitive position and our business could be materially adversely affected.|
|●||We face the risk that third parties will claim that we infringe on their intellectual property rights, which could result in costly license fees or expensive litigation.|
|●||We face risks related to health epidemics and other widespread outbreaks of contagious disease, which could disrupt our operations and impact our operating results.|
|●||We are subject to risks related to corporate social responsibility, responsible gaming, reputation and ethical conduct.|
|●||The online gaming industry is heavily regulated and the Company’s failure to obtain or maintain applicable licensure or approvals, or otherwise comply with applicable requirements, could be disruptive to our business and could adversely affect our operations.|
|●||Once a gaming license is granted, or conditionally approved, violations of any gaming related requirements could result in the imposition of fines, penalties, conditions, or limitations, up to and including the revocation of a gaming license for material and/or repeated violations, all of which could adversely affect our operations and financial viability.|
|●||The online gaming industry is rapidly expanding and evolving, which the proliferation of new and changing regulatory frameworks increases costs and the risk of non-compliance.|
|●||Our B2C operations generate a significant portion of our revenue from “unregulated” markets and changes in regulation in those markets could result in us losing business in those markets, incurring additional expenses in order to comply with any new regulatory scheme, or potentially exiting the market.|
|●||Our B2C operations generate a significant portion of our revenue in markets where tax regulations are evolving, and could result in additional tax liabilities that could materially affect our financial condition and results of operations.|
|●||Compliance with evolving data privacy regulations may cause us to incur additional expenses, and any violation could result in damage to our reputation and/or subject us to fines, payment of damages, lawsuits and restrictions on our use of data.|
|●||Any violation of the Bank Secrecy Act or other similar anti-money laundering laws and regulations could have a negative impact on us.|
|●||We have business operations located in many countries and a significant level of operations outside of the U.S., which subjects us to additional costs and risks that could adversely affect our operating results.|
|●||Our results of operations may be adversely affected by fluctuations in currency values.|
|●||The expansion of our business will subject us to taxation in a number of jurisdictions and changes in, or new interpretation of, tax laws, tax rulings or their application by tax authorities could result in additional tax liabilities and could materially affect our financial condition and results of operations.|
|●||Ownership in our ordinary shares is restricted by gaming laws and our by-laws, and persons found “unsuitable” may be required to dispose of their shares.|
|●||We are a Bermuda company and it may be difficult for you to enforce judgments against us or certain of our directors or officers.|
|●||Our bye-laws restrict shareholders from bringing legal action against our officers and directors and contain provisions that may discourage a change in control.|
The summary risk factors described above should be read together with the text of the full risk factors below and the other information set forth in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including our consolidated financial statements and the related notes, as well as in other documents that we file with the SEC. If any such risks and uncertainties actually occur, our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. The risks summarized above, or described in full below, are not the only risks that we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us, or that we currently deem to be immaterial may also materially adversely affect our business, prospects, stock price, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Business
We have incurred net losses in the past with negative cash flows and may not be able to generate and sustain profitability or sufficient liquidity.
Since our inception, we have typically operated at a loss. At December 31, 2022 we had an accumulated deficit of $151.0 million. We incurred a net loss of $197.5 million and $30.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Additional losses would impair our liquidity and may require us to raise additional capital or to curtail certain of our operations in an effort to preserve capital. Incurring additional losses could also erode investor confidence in our ability to manage our business effectively and result in a decline in the price of our ordinary shares. See Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Liquidity and Capital Resources” of this Report and Note 2 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies in our consolidated financial statements for additional information regarding our liquidity position.
We operate in a rapidly evolving industry and if we fail to successfully develop, market or sell new products or adopt new technology platforms, it could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Our success depends in part on our ability to keep pace with continuing changes in technology. Our GameSTACK platform and other software products compete in a market characterized by rapid technological advances, evolving standards in software technology and frequent new product introductions and enhancements that may render existing products and services obsolete. Competitors and operators are continuously upgrading their product offerings with new features, functions and gaming content. In addition, we continuously refine our software and technology platform to address regulatory changes in the markets in which we operate or plan to operate. In order to remain competitive, we will need to continuously modify and enhance our technology platform and service offerings.
We cannot assure you that we will be able to respond to rapid technological changes in our industry. In addition, the introduction of new products or updated versions of existing products has inherent risks, including, but not limited to, risks concerning:
|●||product quality, including the possibility of software defects, which could result in claims against us or the inability to sell our software products;|
|●||the accuracy of our estimates of customer demand, and the fit of the new products and features with customers’ needs;|
|●||the need to educate our sales, marketing and services personnel to work with the new products and features, which may strain our resources and lengthen sales cycles;|
|●||market acceptance of initial product releases; and|
|●||competitor product introductions, in-house customer solutions or regulatory changes that render our new products obsolete.|
Because we commit substantial resources to developing new software products and services, if the markets for these new products or services do not develop as anticipated, or demand for our products and services in these markets does not materialize or materializes later than we expect, we will have expended substantial resources and capital without realizing sufficient offsetting or resulting revenue, and our business and operating results could be materially adversely affected. Developing, enhancing and localizing software is expensive, and the investment in product development may involve a long payback cycle. Our future plans include significant additional investments in development of our software and other intellectual property. We believe that we must continue to dedicate a significant amount of resources to our development efforts to maintain our competitive position. However, we may not receive significant revenue from these investments for several years, if at all. In addition, as we or our competitors introduce new or enhanced products, the demand for our products, particularly older versions of our products may decline.
The online gaming industry is highly competitive, and if we fail to compete effectively, we could experience price reductions, reduced margins or loss of market share.
The online gaming industry is highly competitive. A number of companies offer products that are similar to our products and target the same markets as we do. Certain of our current and potential competitors have longer operating histories, significantly greater financial, technical and marketing resources, greater name recognition, broader or more integrated product offerings, larger technical staffs and a larger installed customer base than we do. These competitors may be able to respond more quickly to new or emerging technologies and changes in customer requirements, develop superior products, and devote greater resources to the development, promotion and sale of their products than we can.
Because of the rapid growth of our industry, and the relatively low capital barriers to entry in the software industry, we expect additional competition from other established and emerging companies. Some of our customers are land-based casinos that use our GameSTACK platform for rapid access to the online iGaming and sports betting markets. As these customers become more experienced or successful they may look to develop their own proprietary solutions or may look more aggressively at competing platforms. Additionally, our competitors could combine or merge to become more formidable competitors or may adapt more quickly than we can to new technologies, evolving industry trends and changing customer requirements. If we fail to compete effectively, (a) we could be compelled to reduce prices in order to be competitive, which could reduce margins and profitability, or (b) we would lose market shares either of which could materially adversely affect our strategy, our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our business operations are subject to substantial variability, which may make it more difficult for us to forecast our financial results, and may negatively impact how investors review our results or prospects.
Our B2B revenues are generated from our SIM and RMiG customers which are casino operators, primarily in the United States. Our business growth is substantially dependent on new customer launches in existing markets and customer launches in new markets. Each of these transactions can have a significant impact both on our revenue and expenses. The process for each of these transactions is complex involving sales cycles, licensing requirements, product planning and development and marketing coordination. The success of our efforts to secure a new customer, obtain the necessary licensing and launch in a new market can have a significant impact on our financial position and results of operations. Any failure or delay could cause our revenue or operating results to differ substantially from our operating budget, guidance or analysts’ expectations. It could also render period to period analysis of our operating results more difficult, leading to an increased risk of volatility in the trading price of our ordinary shares.
Our B2C revenue is generated primarily from its sportsbook operations in Northern Europe, Latin America and other international markets. Our B2C revenues can vary depending on seasonality of sporting events and our profitability can be affected by event-specific outcomes outside of our control. Following the consummation of the Coolbet acquisition, we have been operating under a new business model, an enhanced technology platform, new product offerings and an expanded base of customers and markets. Accordingly, it may be more difficult for us to forecast our future financial results and there may be an increased risk that our actual results of operations may vary materially from any guidance that we provide. Our more complex business model and offerings may also make it more difficult for analysts to assess our future prospects. Should our future operating results fall below any future guidance that our management may issue or any third-party analyst reports or consensus, it could negatively affect investors’ perceptions, which could decrease demand for our ordinary shares or result in increased volatility in the trading price of our ordinary shares.
Under our revenue arrangements, if existing customers do not continue the use of our products or services, our results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
In our B2B segment, we generate revenue under contracts with casino operators that contemplate ongoing revenue arrangements that depend in part on the revenues of casino operators. The success of our business depends on our ability to retain our existing installed base of customers and to increase the scale of gaming and transactions that they run on our platform. We may experience the loss of a customer if the customer determines to close its operations, elects to develop its own online platform, or elects to contract with one of our competitors. In addition, casino operators that utilize our Super RGS platform may choose to contract directly with content providers. Such events could materially and adversely affect our revenues.
If our customers terminate their contracts with us, we will incur a reduction in revenue unless we are able to secure new customers in amounts sufficient to offset the loss. The sales cycle for our platform can be long, and there are no assurances that we will be able to rapidly replace the loss of a significant customer. A substantial portion of our expenses are fixed, and a loss of revenue would have a material adverse impact on our profitability and our financial position.
We have historically relied on a small number of customers for a substantial portion of our revenue.
For the year ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, our largest customer FanDuel accounted for 20.9% and 14.8%, respectively, of our total revenue. Our revenues from FanDuel in our B2B segment increased in 2022 with FanDuel’s expansion into Ontario, Canada, but our revenues may experience a significant decline in future periods as our rights as their exclusive provider of casino gaming operations ended in January of 2023. Customer concentration in our B2B segment will tend to be more pronounced as we expand our revenue from a smaller base.
Our business strategy encompasses securing a diverse customer base including attempting to expand the amount of business with our current customers and expand into new customer accounts as we enter new geographic markets. While our 2021 acquisition of Coolbet substantially diversified our customer base, we operate in a dynamic industry, in which regulatory restrictions and enabling technologies are changing rapidly. As such, certain of our customers may experience more rapid growth than other customers, resulting in a concentration of revenue from time to time in one or a few significant customers.
At any time that we experience significant customer concentration, the loss of a key customer, for any reason, would have a significant impact on our revenue, our ability to fund operating expenses, and our financial position. In addition, the loss of any material customer could significantly decrease our market share and harm our reputation, which could affect our ability to grow and take advantage of new markets, access resulting data from such markets, and secure funding to invest into development of new products.
Our B2C sports betting operations exposes us to losses as a result of a failure to determine accurately the odds in relation to any particular event and/or any failure of its sports risk management processes.
Our fixed-odds wagering contracts involve betting where winnings are paid on the basis of the amount wagered and the odds quoted. Our sports betting operation is designed to set odds at a level that will provide the bookmaker with an average return over a large number of events. However, there can be significant variation in the gross win percentage for a single event or fixed period of time.
Our systems and controls seek to reduce the risk of daily losses occurring on a gross-win basis, but there can be no assurance that these controls will be effective in all situations, and consequently we face exposure to risk relating to its failure to set accurate odds or managing its sports betting risk. We may experience significant losses with respect to individual events or betting outcomes, in particular if large individual bets are placed on an event or betting outcome or series of events or betting outcomes.
Odds compilers and risk managers are capable of human error, thus even allowing for the fact that a number of betting products are subject to capped pay-outs, significant volatility can occur. In addition, it is possible that there may be such a high volume of wagers during any particular period that even automated systems would be unable to address and eradicate all risks. Any significant losses could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
A reduction in discretionary consumer spending, from an economic downturn or disruption of financial markets or other factors, could negatively impact our financial performance.
iGaming and sports betting that we and our customers offer represent discretionary expenditures. Players’ participation in those activities may decline if discretionary consumer spending declines, including during economic downturns, when consumers generally earn less disposable income. Changes in discretionary consumer spending or consumer preferences are driven by factors beyond our control, such as:
|●||perceived or actual general economic conditions;|
|●||fears of recession and changes in consumer confidence in the economy;|
|●||high energy, fuel and other commodity costs;|
|●||the potential for bank failures or other financial crises;|
|●||a soft job market;|
|●||an actual or perceived decrease in disposable consumer income and wealth;|
|●||increases in taxes, including gaming taxes or fees; and|
|●||terrorist attacks or other global events.|
During periods of economic contraction, our revenues may decrease while most of our costs remain fixed and some costs even increase, resulting in decreased earnings.
Macroeconomic conditions can materially adversely affect the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition.
Recent adverse macroeconomic conditions, including inflation, higher interest rates, slower growth or recession, the strengthening of the U.S. dollar, and corresponding currency fluctuations can have an adverse material impact on the Company’s future results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition, particularly with respect to foreign currency adjustments relating to our international operations. Such conditions may also affect consumers’ willingness to make discretionary purchases, and therefore the Company, along with its casino operator customers, may experience a decline in wagering. A downturn in the economic environment can also lead to increased credit and collectability risk on the Company’s trade receivables, limitations on the Company’s ability to issue new debt, and reduced liquidity.
We face the risk of fraud, theft, and cheating.
We face the risk that players may attempt or commit fraud or theft or cheat in order to increase winnings. Such risks include stolen credit or charge cards and hacked or stolen customer accounts. Failure to discover such acts or schemes in a timely manner could result in losses in our operations. Negative publicity related to such acts or schemes could have an adverse effect on our reputation, potentially causing a material adverse effect on our business.
We face cyber security risks that could result in damage to our reputation and/or subject us to fines, payment of damages, lawsuits and restrictions on our use of data.
We rely extensively on computer systems to process transactions, maintain information and manage our businesses. In addition, our business involves the collection, storage, processing, and transmission of end users’ personal data, including financial information and information about how they interact with our games and platform. We have built our reputation, in part, on the sophistication and security of our payment and financial processing.
Our industry is prone to cyber-attacks by third parties seeking unauthorized access to our information systems and data or to disrupt our ability to provide service. Our information systems and data, including those we maintain with our third-party service providers, may be subject to cyber security breaches in the future. Computer programmers and hackers may be able to penetrate our network security and misappropriate, copy or pirate our confidential information or that of third parties, create system disruptions or cause interruptions or shutdowns of our internal systems and services. Our website may become subject to denial of service attacks, where a website is bombarded with information requests eventually causing the website to overload, resulting in a delay or disruption of service. Computer programmers and hackers also may be able to develop and deploy viruses, worms and other malicious software programs that attack our products or otherwise exploit any security vulnerabilities of our products. Also, there is a growing trend of advanced persistent threats being launched by organized and coordinated groups against corporate networks to breach security for malicious purposes.
Disruptions in the availability of our computer systems, through cyber-attacks or otherwise, could damage our computer or telecommunications systems, impact our ability to service our customers, adversely affect our operations and the results of operations, and have an adverse effect on our reputation. The costs to us to eliminate or alleviate security problems, bugs, viruses, worms, malicious software programs and security vulnerabilities could be significant, and the efforts to address these problems could result in interruptions, delays, cessation of service and loss of existing or potential customers and may impede our sales, distribution and other critical functions. Although we plan to continuously develop systems and processes to protect our information systems and data, we cannot assure you that such measures will provide absolute security, that we will be able to react in a timely manner, or that our remediation efforts will be successful. We may also be subject to regulatory penalties and litigation by customers and other parties whose information has been compromised, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, reputation, results of operations and cash flows.
Systems failures and resulting interruptions in the availability of our websites, applications, products, or services could harm our business.
The full-time availability and expeditious delivery of our products and services is a critical part of our solution offering to our consumers. Our systems may experience service interruptions or degradation because of hardware and software defects or malfunctions, distributed denial-of-service and other cyberattacks, human error, earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, fires, and other natural disasters, power losses, disruptions in telecommunications services, fraud, military or political conflicts, terrorist attacks, computer viruses or other malware, or other events. Some of our systems are not fully redundant, and our disaster recovery planning may not be sufficient for all eventualities. In addition, as a provider of payments solutions, we are subject to heightened scrutiny by regulators that may require specific business continuity, resiliency and disaster recovery plans, and more rigorous testing of such plans, which may be costly and time-consuming and may divert our resources from other business priorities.
We also rely on facilities, components, and services supplied by third parties, including data center facilities and cloud storage services. If these third parties cease to provide the facilities or services, experience operational interference or disruptions, breach their agreements with us, fail to perform their obligations and meet our expectations, or experience a cybersecurity incident, our operations could be disrupted or otherwise negatively affected, which could result in customer dissatisfaction and damage to our reputation and brands, and materially and adversely affect our business. We do not carry business interruption insurance sufficient to compensate us for all losses that may result from interruptions in our service as a result of systems failures and similar events.
A prolonged interruption in the availability or reduction in the availability, speed, or functionality of our products and services will result in a loss of revenue and could materially harm our business. Frequent or persistent interruptions in our services could cause current or potential customers to believe that our systems are unreliable, leading them to switch to our competitors or to avoid or reduce the use of our products and services, and could permanently harm our reputation and brands. Moreover, if any system failure or similar event results in damages to our customers or their business partners, these customers or partners could seek significant compensation or contractual penalties from us for their losses, and those claims, even if unsuccessful, would likely be time-consuming and costly for us to address.
Our business strategy anticipates substantial growth, and if we fail to adequately scale product offerings and manage our entry into new territories, our business and reputation may be harmed.
Our business strategy contemplates substantial growth in our customer base, attempting to capture a larger share of a dynamic and growing iGaming and sports betting market, primarily in the United States but internationally as well. Our growth has placed, and is expected to continue to place, a significant strain on our managerial, administrative, operational and financial resources, and our infrastructure. Our future success will depend, in part, upon the ability of our management to manage growth effectively. This will require us to, among other things:
|●||implement additional management information systems;|
|●||further develop our operating, administrative, legal, financial and accounting systems and controls;|
|●||hire additional qualified personnel and develop human capital;|
|●||comply with additional regulatory regimes, securing licenses and permits; and|
|●||maintain close coordination among our engineering, operations, legal, finance, sales and marketing and customer service and support organizations.|
Failure to accomplish any of these requirements could adversely affect our ability to deliver our product and service offerings in a timely fashion, fulfill existing customer commitments or attract and retain new customers.
We have experienced significant non-cash impairment charges to our goodwill and other intangible assets, which may affect our results of operations in the future.
Goodwill is reviewed for impairment annually, or more frequently if an event occurs or circumstances change that may indicate that fair value of our reporting units may be below their carrying value. We determine fair value considering both the income and market approaches. Definite-lived intangible assets are evaluated for impairment if an event or change occurs such that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. We completed a significant acquisition which has resulted in significant amounts of goodwill and other intangible assets on our balance sheet, of which we recognized a total impairment to (i) goodwill ($136.9 million), (ii) intangible assets ($19.1 million), and (iii) capitalized software development costs ($10.0 million) during the year ended December 31, 2022. These non-cash charges significantly affected our results of operations. Unfavorable changes in the business climate or competitive environment, our revenue forecasts, our market capitalization, capital structure, capital expenditure levels, operating cash flows, as well as adverse legal or regulatory actions or developments could cause material impairments to the carrying value of our intangible assets or intangible assets we may obtain in future periods.
We rely on relationships with third-party content providers for a significant portion of our revenue.
We currently license gaming content from third-party software providers for inclusion in our online games and content offerings. We license these rights to provide our customers with access to online versions of popular casino-based games, reduce our development costs, to expand our content offerings and to shorten our time to market with new products and solutions. Our B2B business model is predicated on sharing revenue with our casino operators. If we were to lose access to popular game titles and content, our casino operators may experience a decline in wagering, reducing their revenue and ours. We could be compelled to pay higher prices for licenses, or incur increased expenses in an effort to develop our proprietary content, but there are no guarantees that we would be successful in either approach. The loss of compelling content could also make our solution and product offering less competitive, and our operators’ customers may look for alternative vendors with access to different content.
In addition, a significant portion of customers are introduced to us by our network of content manufacturers. These content manufacturers include casino equipment manufacturers and casino gaming content designers, which do not manufacture physical gaming equipment. We may experience difficulty in maintaining or establishing third-party relationships with our content manufacturers. If we are unable to maintain good relations with our content manufacturers, our ability to organically grow our business could be harmed, which may materially adversely affect operating results and financial condition. Additionally, we are exposed to the risk that the content manufacturers through which we indirectly promote our products and services will not devote sufficient time, attention and resources to learning our products, markets and potential customers and may promote and sell competing products and services.
If we are unable to protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights, our competitive position and our business could be materially adversely affected.
The iGaming and online sports betting industries are subject to rapid technological change and we and a number of our competitors are developing technology and intellectual property that we believe is unique and provides us with a commercial advantage. We regard the protection of our developed technologies and intellectual property rights as a competitive differentiation and an important element of our business operations and crucial to our success. Unauthorized use of our intellectual property and proprietary rights may reduce our revenue, devalue our brands and property and harm our reputation.
We rely primarily on a combination of patent laws, trademark laws, copyright laws, trade secrets, confidentiality procedures and contractual provisions to protect our proprietary technology. As of December 31, 2022, we held one issued U.S. patent (patent number 8,821,296 dated September 2, 2014) with multiple claims within that single patent. We generally require our employees, consultants and advisors to enter into invention contribution and confidentiality agreements. Our efforts to protect our proprietary rights may not be adequate to prevent misappropriation of our intellectual property. We may not be able to detect unauthorized use of, or take appropriate steps to enforce, our intellectual property rights. Further, the laws of many countries, including countries where we conduct business, do not protect our proprietary rights to as great an extent as do the laws of the United States and European countries. The failure of our patent, or our reliance upon copyright and trade secret laws to adequately protect our technology, might make it easier for our competitors to offer similar products or technologies.
We may in the future need to initiate infringement claims or litigation. Litigation can be expensive and time-consuming and may divert the efforts of our technical staff and managerial personnel, which could harm our business. In addition, litigation is inherently uncertain, and thus we may not be able to stop our competitors from infringing upon our intellectual property rights.
We face the risk that third parties will claim that we infringe on their intellectual property rights, which could result in costly license fees or expensive litigation.
While we respect third parties’ intellectual property rights and have procedures designed to avoid the inadvertent use of third-party intellectual property, we may face claims from our competitors that the products or solutions that we develop, or those provided to us by third parties or used by our customers, infringe on third parties’ intellectual property rights. Some of our competitors have substantially greater resources than we do and are able to sustain the costs of complex intellectual property litigation to a greater degree and for longer periods of time than we could. In addition, patent holding companies that focus solely on extracting royalties and settlements by enforcing patent rights may target us.
Any such claim may seek to prohibit our use of the third-party’s intellectual property rights or may require us to obtain licenses from the holders of the patents or other intellectual property rights. We cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain any such licenses on commercially favorable terms, or at all. If we do not obtain such licenses, we could, for example, be required to cease or materially alter our product offerings and our business, operating results and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.
Future litigation may be necessary to defend ourselves, our customers or our partners by determining the scope, enforceability and validity of third-party proprietary rights or to establish our proprietary rights. Regardless of whether the infringement claims have any merit, defense of intellectual property litigation is time-consuming, costly to evaluate and defend, and could:
|●||adversely affect our relationships with our current or future customers or partners;|
|●||cause delays or stoppages in providing new sales of our products;|
|●||cause us to have to cease use of certain technology or products;|
|●||require technology changes that would cause us to incur substantial cost;|
|●||require us to enter into royalty or licensing agreements on unfavorable terms; and|
|●||divert management’s attention and resources.|
In addition, many of our contracts provide our customers or partners with indemnification with respect to their use of our intellectual property. We cannot predict whether any existing or future third-party intellectual property rights would require us to alter our technologies, obtain licenses or cease certain activities.
We face risks related to health epidemics and other widespread outbreaks of contagious disease, which could disrupt our operations and impact our operating results.
Significant outbreaks of contagious diseases, and other adverse public health developments, could have a material impact on our business operations and operating results.
The impact of public health threats or outbreaks of communicable diseases is uncertain. Although our business proved resilient during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is uncertain whether this trend will continue, as the economic disruption and uncertainty caused by the COVID-19 pandemic may be repeated in the event of future severe outbreaks or variants. In the event of a public health crisis, government authorities may, from time to time, implement various mitigation measures, including travel restrictions, limitations on business operations, stay-at-home orders and social distancing protocols. Any prolonged deviations from normal daily operations could negatively impact our business. Additionally, any prolonged disruption of our content providers, customers, players or regulatory reviewers could delay regulatory approvals or conclusions related to new products or the finalization of new contracts entered into by us.
We are subject to risks related to corporate social responsibility, responsible gaming, reputation and ethical conduct.
Many factors influence our reputation and the value of our brands, including the perception held by our customers, business partners, investors, other key stakeholders and the communities in which we operate, such as our social responsibility, corporate governance and responsible gaming practices. We have faced, and will likely continue to face, increased scrutiny related to social, governance and responsible gaming activities, and our reputation and the value of our brands can be materially adversely harmed if we fail to act responsibly in a number of areas, such as diversity and inclusion, workplace conduct, responsible gaming, human rights, philanthropy and support for the local communities. Any harm to our reputation could impact employee engagement and retention, and the willingness of customers and partners to do business with us, which could have a materially adverse effect on our business, results of operations and cash flows.
We believe that our reputation is critical to our role as a leader in the online gaming industry and as a publicly traded company. Our Board has adopted a Code of Business Conduct as well as other related policies and procedures, and management is heavily focused on the integrity of our directors, officers, senior management, employees, other personnel and third-party suppliers and partners. Illegal, unethical or fraudulent activities perpetrated by any of such individuals, suppliers or partners for personal gain could expose us to potential reputational damage and financial loss.
Risks Related to Regulation
The online gaming industry is heavily regulated and the Company’s failure to obtain or maintain applicable licensure or approvals, or otherwise comply with applicable requirements, could be disruptive to our business and could adversely affect our operations.
We and our officers, directors, major shareholders, key employees and business partners are generally subject to the laws and regulations relating to online gaming of the jurisdictions in which we conduct business, as well as the general laws and regulations that apply to all e-commerce businesses, such as those related to privacy and personal information, tax and consumer protection. With each new regulated market we enter, we are generally required to secure a gaming license. These laws and regulations vary from one jurisdiction to another and future legislative and regulatory action, court decisions or other governmental action, which may be affected by, among other things, political pressures, attitudes and climates, as well as personal biases, may have a material impact on our operations and financial results.
Gaming authorities have broad discretion in determining whether to grant, or not to grant, a gaming license and/or whether to impose conditions or limitations upon such gaming license. The process of submitting applications may be expensive and time-consuming and the outcome is not assured. Regulatory regimes imposed upon gaming providers vary by jurisdiction. Typically, however, most regulatory regimes include the following elements:
|●||the opportunity to apply for one or more gaming licenses for one or more categories of products, whether as part of a general round of license issuance (for example, Spain) or as and when the applicant chooses to apply;|
|●||a requirement for gaming license applicants to make detailed and extensive disclosures as to their beneficial ownership, their source of funds, the probity and integrity of certain persons associated with the applicant, the applicant’s management competence and structure and business plans, the applicant’s proposed geographical territories of operation and the applicant’s ability to operate a gaming business in a socially responsible manner in compliance with applicable laws and regulations;|
|●||interviews and assessments by the relevant gaming authority intended to inform a regulatory determination of the suitability of applicants for gaming licenses;|
|●||assessments by the relevant gaming authority intended to inform a regulatory determination of the continued suitability of gaming license holders;|
|●||ongoing reporting and disclosure obligations, both on a periodic and ad hoc basis in response to material issues affecting the business;|
|●||the testing and certification of software and systems, generally designed to confirm such things as the fairness of the gaming products offered by the business, their genuine randomness and ability accurately to generate settlement instructions and recover from outages;|
|●||the need to account for applicable gaming duties and other taxes and levies, such as fees or contributions to bodies that organize the sports on which bets are offered, as well as contributions to the prevention and treatment of problem gaming; and|
|●||social responsibility obligations.|
If we fail to obtain the necessary gaming license in a given jurisdiction, we would likely be prohibited from distributing and providing our product offerings in that particular jurisdiction altogether. If we fail to seek, do not receive, or receive a suspension or revocation of a license in a particular jurisdiction for our product offerings (including any related technology and software) then we cannot offer the same in that jurisdiction and our gaming licenses in other jurisdictions may be impacted. Furthermore, some jurisdictions require license holders to obtain government approval before engaging in some transactions, such as business combinations, reorganizations, share offerings and repurchases. We may not be able to obtain all necessary gaming licenses in a timely manner, or at all. Delays in regulatory approvals or failure to obtain such approvals may also serve as a barrier to entry to the market for our product offerings. If we are unable to overcome the barriers to entry, it will materially affect our results of operations and future prospects.
To the extent new online gaming jurisdictions are established or expanded, we cannot guarantee we will be successful in penetrating such new jurisdictions or expanding our business or customer base in line with the growth of existing jurisdictions.
As we directly or indirectly enter into new markets, we may encounter legal, regulatory and political challenges that are difficult or impossible to foresee and which could result in an unforeseen adverse impact on planned revenues or costs associated with the new market opportunity. If we are unable to effectively develop and operate directly or indirectly within these new markets or if our competitors are able to successfully penetrate geographic markets that we cannot access or where we face other restrictions, then our business, operating results and financial condition could be impaired. Our failure to obtain or maintain the necessary regulatory approvals in jurisdictions, whether individually or collectively, would have a material adverse effect on our business.
Once a gaming license is granted violations of any gaming related requirements could result in the revocation of a gaming license, the imposition of fines, conditions, or limitations, all of which could adversely affect our operations and financial viability.
Once we have been granted a gaming license, we are required to comply with the applicable statutory and/or regulatory requirements, policy directives, and license conditions and/or limitations. Failure to comply with any of such, could result in a gaming regulator bringing a disciplinary action against us. We have previously been assessed fines related to failure to comply with license conditions and codes of practice. We cannot predict the outcome of any current or future regulatory review.
Disciplinary action could range from the imposition of fines, further conditions or limitations imposed upon the gaming license, to the revocation of previously granted gaming licenses. The imposition of any such disciplinary actions could adversely affect our operations in that jurisdiction and its financial viability. Further, the disciplinary action in one jurisdiction could result in separate disciplinary action being brought by another gaming regulator, which could further adversely affect our operations in those jurisdictions and its financial viability.
The online gaming industry is rapidly expanding and evolving, which the proliferation of new and changing regulatory frameworks increases costs and increases the risk of non-compliance.
The online gaming and interactive entertainment industries are relatively new and continue to evolve. As additional jurisdictions initiate regulation, legal and regulatory developments (such as passing new laws or regulations or extending existing laws or regulations to online gaming and related activities), taxation of gaming activities, data and information privacy, anti-money laundering and ‘know your customer’ laws and regulations, and payment processing laws and regulations, are continuing to evolve in ways we are unable to predict and which are beyond our control.
Given the dynamic evolution of these industries, it can be difficult to plan strategically, including as it relates to product launches in new or existing jurisdictions, which may be delayed or denied, and it is possible that competitors will be more successful than us at adapting to change and pursuing business opportunities. Additionally, as the online gaming industry advances, including with respect to regulation in new and existing jurisdictions, we will become subject to additional compliance-related costs, including regulatory infractions, licensing and taxes. Consequently, we cannot provide assurance that our online and interactive offerings will grow at the rates expected or be successful in the long term.
Our B2C operations generate a significant portion of its revenues from “unregulated” markets and changes in regulation in those markets could result in us losing business in those markets, incurring additional expenses in order to comply with any new regulatory scheme, or potentially exiting the market.
Our B2C operations currently generate a significant portion of its revenues in markets that currently do not have a local licensing scheme, including Latin America and Northern Europe. Certain of those markets, or other markets where we may operate in the future, are in the process of developing regulations that require registration and regulatory compliance or could do so in the near term. The adoption of regulations and licensing requirements may increase costs, reduce net gaming revenue or require us to cease operations depending on the range of unforeseen developments in proposed rules and regulations governing online gaming in the international markets in which we currently operate.
Our B2C operations generate a significant portion of our revenue in markets where tax regulations are evolving, and could result in additional tax liabilities that could materially affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Our B2C operations currently generate a significant portion of its revenues in markets that have evolving tax legislation, including Latin America and Canada. Those markets, or other markets where we may operate in the future are actively considering or could adopt regulations that adversely affect our operations. The adoption of tax regulations may increase costs, reduce net gaming revenue or require us to cease operations depending on the range of unforeseen possible changes to the statutes governing online gaming in the international markets in which we currently operate.
Compliance with evolving data privacy regulations may cause us to incur additional expenses, and any violation could result in damage to our reputation and/or subject us to fines, payment of damages, lawsuits and restrictions on our use of data.
We collect and process information relating to our employees, our customer operators, our customers’ end user players, and others for various business purposes, including payment processing, marketing and promotional purposes. The collection and use of personal data are governed by privacy laws and regulations enacted by the various U.S. states, and other jurisdictions around the world. Privacy laws and regulations continue to evolve and on occasion may be inconsistent between jurisdictions. Various federal, state and foreign legislative or regulatory bodies may enact or adopt new or additional laws and regulations concerning privacy, data retention, data transfer, and data protection. For example, the European Union has adopted a data protection regulation known as the General Data Protection Regulation, or “GDPR”, which became fully enforceable in May 2018, that includes operational and compliance requirements with significant penalties for non-compliance. In addition, California has enacted a new privacy law, known as the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, which became effective in 2020 and provides some of the strongest privacy requirements in the United States.
Compliance with applicable privacy laws and regulations may increase our operating costs and/or adversely impact our ability to provide and market our products, properties and services. In addition, non-compliance with applicable privacy laws and regulations by us (or in some circumstances non-compliance by third parties engaged by us), including accidental loss, inadvertent disclosure, unapproved dissemination or a breach of security on systems storing our data may result in damage to our reputation and/or subject us to fines, payment of damages, lawsuits or restrictions on our use or transfer of data. We rely on proprietary and commercially available systems, software, and tools to provide security for processing of customer and employee information, such as payment card and other confidential or proprietary information. Our data security measures are reviewed and evaluated regularly; however, they might not protect us against increasingly sophisticated and aggressive threats including, but not limited to, computer malware, viruses, hacking and phishing attacks by third parties.
Any violation of the Bank Secrecy Act or other similar anti-money laundering laws and regulations could have a negative impact on us.
Our operations are subject to reporting and anti-money laundering (“AML”) regulations in various jurisdictions. In recent years, governmental authorities have been increasingly focused on AML policies and procedures, with a particular focus on the gaming industry. Any violation of AML laws or regulations could result in fines, administrative expenses, and have a negative effect on our business reputation, ability to secure and retain gaming licenses, and have a negative effect on our results of operations.
We ceased to be a foreign private issuer on December 31, 2020, which resulted in significant additional costs and expenses related to our compliance with U.S. securities laws.
As a public company in the United States, we are incurring significant legal, insurance, accounting and other expenses. We have invested, and plan to continue to invest, resources to comply with evolving laws, regulations and standards, and this investment will result in increased general and administrative expenses and may divert management’s time and attention away from product development and other commercial activities.
We determined that, as of June 30, 2020, we no longer qualified as a foreign private issuer. Accordingly, effective January 1, 2021, we were required to comply with all U.S. federal securities laws that apply to U.S. reporting companies, including enhanced periodic reporting, proxy requirements, and our officers, directors and principal shareholders are subject to the short-swing profit disclosure and recovery provisions of Section 16 of the Exchange Act. We are required to file periodic reports and registration statements on U.S. domestic issuer forms containing financial statements prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”), with the SEC, which are more detailed and extensive than the forms available to a foreign private issuer. In addition, we became subject to the Nasdaq corporate governance requirements, which are more strenuous than the corporate governance requirements under Bermuda law. As a result, we expect that our regulatory and compliance costs would continue to be significant.
We have identified a material weakness in connection with our internal control over financial reporting which, if not remediated, could adversely affect our business, reputation and stock price.
As previously disclosed, in connection with the audit of the consolidated financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 2021, our management and audit committee concluded that we have material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. Specifically, certain time and functions previously reported as attributable to software development were not applied consistently with applicable accounting principles. In addition, the Company evaluated the accounting for revenue from contracts with customers that include significant customization services, previously recognized upon launch, that only the Company can perform and are necessary for the set-up of instances of the RMiG platform, and concluded the services were not distinct and the related contract consideration should be allocated to the single performance obligation consisting of the right to access the SaaS platform, recognized over time during the estimated term of the arrangement. The Company also identified deficiencies in the design of the control environment whereby the Company did not maintain effective risk assessment over segregation of duties, certain finance users were granted “super user” access and security administration rights to the financial reporting systems, the activity of these users with elevated access were not actively monitored, and no segregation of duties over journal entry preparation and approval within the B2C segment existed. The effects of the capitalized software development and revenue recognition errors resulted in an overstatement of capitalized software development costs, net, and an overstatement of development revenue resulting in a restatement of our quarterly reports on Form 10-Q for each of the periods ended March 31, 2021, June 30, 2021 and September 30, 2021, as management determined that the aggregate effect of the individual errors in each period was material to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements for such quarters.
A material weakness is a deficiency or combination of deficiencies in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.
In 2022, we designed and implemented measures to improve our internal control over financial reporting to remediate the material weaknesses described above, primarily by formalizing and documenting our policies and procedures surrounding capitalized software development costs and revenue recognition, designing and implementing training for the employees whose roles and activities may qualify for capitalization, instituting monthly meetings with the development leadership team to assess the status of all projects, formalizing the customer contract review process, and enhancing the scrutiny and precision of the management review controls over the capitalization of software development and revenue recognition process. We have also implemented appropriate controls to segregate journal entry preparation and approvals and to actively monitor finance users with elevated rights within our B2B segment.
Based on the evaluation completed in the fourth quarter of 2022, our management and audit committee has concluded that these control improvements related to revenue recognition, capitalized software development costs, and segregation of duties within our B2B segment are properly designed and operating effectively as of December 31, 2022, and that the material weakness related to revenue recognition, capitalized software development costs, and segregation of duties with in our B2B segment existing as of December 31, 2021 has been remediated. However, the material weakness related to the segregation of duties over journal entry preparation and approval within the B2C segment has not been remediated. While we are designing and implementing measures to remediate the remaining material weakness in the B2C segment, we cannot predict the success of such measures or the outcome of our assessment of these measures at that time. We can give no assurance that these measures will remediate the remaining material weakness in internal control or that additional material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting will not be identified in the future. Our failure to implement and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could result in errors in our financial statements that may lead to additional restatements of our financial statements or cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations. Any such failure could also lead to reputational damage and a decrease in the market price of our stock.
Risks Related to our International Operations
We have business operations located in many countries and a significant level of operations outside of the U.S., which subjects us to additional costs and risks that could adversely affect our operating results.
A significant portion of our customer base and operations are located outside of the United States. Compliance with international and U.S. laws and regulations that apply to our international operations increases our cost of doing business. As a result of our international operations, we are subject to a variety of risks and challenges in managing an organization operating in various countries, including those related to:
|●||challenges caused by distance as well as language and cultural differences;|
|●||general economic conditions in each country or region;|
|●||political unrest, terrorism and the potential for other hostilities;|
|●||public health risks, particularly in areas in which we have significant operations;|
|●||longer payment cycles and difficulties in collecting accounts receivable;|
|●||overlapping or changes in tax regimes;|
|●||difficulties in transferring funds from certain countries;|
|●||laws such as the U.K. Bribery Act 2010 and the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, and local laws which also prohibit corrupt payments to governmental officials; and|
|●||reduced protection for intellectual property rights in some countries.|
If we are unable to effectively staff and manage our global operations, we may not realize, in whole or in part, the anticipated benefits from our international operations which in turn could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Our results of operations may be adversely affected by fluctuations in foreign currency values.
As a result of our global operations, we generate a portion of our revenue and incur a portion of our expenses in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. Our primary currency exposures are the British Pound, Euro, Bulgarian Lev, Israeli Shekel, and Australian Dollar. For example, we have a significant amount of our Euro-denominated transactions associated with revenue, a devaluation of the Euro relative to the U.S. dollar would adversely affect our results of operations reported in the U.S. dollar. As our transactions in British Pounds are primarily expenses, a decline of the U.S. dollar relative to the British Pound would negatively impact our results of operations reported in the U.S. dollar. The financial condition, results of operations and cash flows of some of our operating entities are reported in currencies other than the U.S. dollar and then translated into U.S. dollars at the applicable exchange rate for inclusion in our consolidated financial statements. As a result, appreciation of the U.S. dollar against those other currencies generally will have a negative impact on our reported revenue and profits while depreciation of the U.S. dollar against other currencies will generally have positive effect on reported revenue and profits. Any significant decline in the value of these currencies as compared to the U.S. dollar would have a material adverse impact on our results of operations.
The expansion of our business will subject us to taxation in a number of jurisdictions and changes in, or new interpretation of, tax laws, tax rulings or their application by tax authorities could result in additional tax liabilities and could materially affect our financial condition and results of operations.
We pay U.S. federal, state and international taxes due to our global operations and the locations in which we operate. We are subject to taxation in a number of international jurisdictions. The tax laws applicable to our business are myriad, and are subject to interpretation, and significant judgment is required in determining our provision for income taxes. In the course of our business, there are many transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. Consequently, our results may differ from previous estimates and may materially affect our consolidated financial statements.
The gaming industry represents a significant source of tax revenue to the jurisdictions in which we will operate. Gaming companies and B2B providers in the gaming industry (directly and/or indirectly by way of their commercial relationships with operators) are currently subject to significant taxes and fees in addition to normal corporate income taxes, and those taxes and fees are subject to increase at any time. In addition, any worsening of economic conditions and the large number of jurisdictions with significant current or projected budget deficits could intensify the efforts of governments to raise revenues through increases in gaming taxes and/or other taxes. It is not possible to determine with certainty the likelihood of changes in tax laws or in the administration or interpretation or enforcement of such laws. Any material increase, or the adoption of additional taxes or fees, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We are subject to periodic review and audit by U.S. and foreign tax authorities. Tax authorities may disagree with certain tax positions that we have taken or that we will take, and any adverse outcome of such a review or audit could have a negative effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Although we believe that our income tax provisions, positions and estimates are reasonable and appropriate, tax authorities may disagree with certain positions we have taken. In addition, economic and political pressures to increase tax revenue in various jurisdictions may make resolving tax disputes favorably more difficult.
U.S. Holders of our ordinary shares could be subject to material adverse tax consequences if we are considered a Passive Foreign Investment Company for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
There is a risk that we could be classified as a Passive Foreign Investment Company (“PFIC”), for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Our status as a PFIC could result in a reduction in the after-tax return to U.S. Holders of our ordinary shares and may cause a reduction in the value of our ordinary shares. A corporation is classified as a PFIC for any taxable year in which either (i) at least 75% of its gross income is “passive income” or (ii) at least 50% of the average quarterly value of all its assets consists of assets that produce, or are held for the production of, passive income. For this purpose, passive income generally includes among other things, dividends, interest, certain rents and royalties, annuities, certain gains from the sale of stock and securities, and certain gains from commodities transactions.
Based on the projected composition of our income and valuation of our assets, we do not believe we would have been a PFIC in any previous taxable year, and we do not expect to become a PFIC in the foreseeable future, although there can be no assurance in this regard. The U.S. Internal Revenue Service or a U.S. court could determine that we are or were a PFIC in any past, current, or future taxable years. The determination of whether we are a PFIC is a fact-intensive determination made on an annual basis applying principles and methodologies, which in some circumstances are unclear and subject to varying interpretation. If we were classified as a PFIC, U.S. Holders of our ordinary shares could be subject to greater U.S. income tax liability than might otherwise apply, imposition of U.S. income tax in advance of when tax would otherwise apply and detailed tax filing requirements that would not otherwise apply. The PFIC rules are complex and a U.S. holder of our ordinary shares is urged to consult its tax advisors regarding the possible application of the PFIC rules.
Risks Related to Corporate Governance Matters
Ownership in our ordinary shares is restricted by gaming laws and our by-laws, and persons found “unsuitable” may be required to dispose of their shares.
Gaming authorities have the right to investigate any individual or entity having a relationship to, or involvement with, our Company or any of its subsidiaries, to determine whether such individual or entity is suitable as a business associate of ours. Many jurisdictions also require any person who acquires beneficial ownership of more than a certain percentage of voting securities of a gaming company and, in some jurisdictions, non-voting securities, sometimes 5%, to report the acquisition to the gaming authorities, and the gaming authorities may require such holders to apply for qualification or a finding of suitability, subject to limited exceptions for “institutional investors” that hold a company’s voting securities for investment purposes only. Subject to certain administrative proceeding requirements, gaming authorities have broad discretion to deny any application or limit, condition, restrict, revoke or suspend any license, registration, finding of suitability or approval, or fine any person licensed, registered or found suitable or approved, for any cause deemed reasonable by the gaming authorities.
Any person found unsuitable by a gaming authority may not hold directly or indirectly ownership of any voting security or the beneficial or record ownership of any nonvoting security or any debt security of any public corporation which is registered with the relevant gaming authority beyond the time prescribed by the relevant gaming authority. Our by-laws include certain provisions to ensure that we comply with applicable gaming laws. These provisions provide, among other things, that GAN Limited is prohibited from carrying on Gaming or Gaming Activities (as defined therein) itself and that our Board of Directors has the right to cause a forced sale of the ordinary shares held by an unsuitable person. Any such forced sale may negatively affect the trading price of our ordinary shares and may negatively affect the liquidity of our ordinary shares.
We are a Bermuda company and it may be difficult for you to enforce judgments against us or certain of our directors or officers.
We are a Bermuda exempted company. As a result, the rights of holders of our ordinary shares will be governed by Bermuda law and our memorandum of association and by-laws. The rights of shareholders under Bermuda law may differ from the rights of shareholders of companies incorporated in other jurisdictions. Bermuda legislation regarding companies is largely based on English corporate law principles. However, there can be no assurance that Bermuda law will not change in the future or that it will serve to protect investors in a similar fashion afforded under corporate law principles in the United States, which could adversely affect the rights of investors. Certain of our directors and officers are not residents of the United States, and a substantial portion of our assets are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult for investors to effect service of process on those persons in the United States or to enforce in the United States, judgments obtained in U.S. courts against us or those persons based on the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws. We have been advised by our special Bermuda counsel that uncertainty exists as to whether courts in Bermuda will enforce judgments obtained in other jurisdictions, including the United States, or entertain action in Bermuda against us or our directors or officers.
Furthermore, we have been advised by our special Bermuda counsel that Bermuda courts will not recognize or give effect to U.S. federal securities laws that such Bermuda courts consider to be procedural in nature, are revenue or penal laws or the application of which would be inconsistent with public policy in Bermuda. Certain remedies available under the laws of U.S. jurisdictions, including certain remedies under U.S. federal securities laws, will not be recognized or given effect to in any action brought before a court of competent jurisdiction in Bermuda where the application of such remedies would be inconsistent with public policy in Bermuda. Further, no claim may be brought in Bermuda against us or our directors and officers in the first instance for violations of U.S. federal securities laws because those laws do not have the force of law in Bermuda. A Bermuda court may, however, impose civil liability on us or our directors and officers if the facts alleged in a complaint constitute or give rise to a cause of action under Bermuda law.
Shareholders of a Bermuda company may have a cause of action against us or our directors for breach of any duty in the by-laws or any shareholders’ agreement owed personally by us to the shareholder. Directors of a Bermuda company may be liable to the company for breach of their duties as directors to the company under the Bermuda Companies Act, and under common law. Such actions must, as a general rule, be brought by the company. Where the directors have carried on an act which is ultra vires or illegal, then the shareholder has the right, with leave of the court, to bring a derivative action to sue the directors on behalf of the company with any damages awarded going to the company itself. Shareholders are also able to take action against a company if the affairs of the company are being conducted in a manner which is oppressive or unfairly prejudicial to the shareholders or some number of them, and to seek either a winding-up order or an alternative remedy if a winding-up order would be unfairly prejudicial to them.
Our by-laws restrict shareholders from bringing legal action against our officers and directors.
Our by-laws contain a broad waiver by our shareholders of any claim or right of action, both individually and on our behalf, against any of our officers or directors. The waiver applies to any action taken by an officer or director, or the failure of an officer or director to take any action, in the performance of his or her duties, except with respect to any matter involving any fraud or dishonesty on the part of the officer or director or any claims of violations of the Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 the waiver of which would be prohibited by Section 14 of the Securities Act and Section 29(a) of the Exchange Act. This waiver limits the right of shareholders to assert claims against our officers and directors unless the act or failure to act involves fraud or dishonesty.
We have provisions in our by-laws that may discourage a change of control.
Our by-laws contain provisions that could make it more difficult for a third-party to acquire us without the consent of our Board of Directors. These provisions include, among others:
|●||restrictions on the time period in which directors may be nominated;|
|●||the prohibition of cumulative voting in the election of directors;|
|●||the requirement for shareholders wishing to propose a person for election as a director (other than persons proposed by our Board of Directors) to give advance written notice of nominations for the election of directors; and|
|●||certain provisions to ensure that we comply with applicable gaming laws, which provide, among other things, that our Board of Directors has the right to cause a forced sale of the ordinary shares held by an “unsuitable” person (see the risk factor above entitled “Ownership in our ordinary shares is restricted by gaming laws and our by-laws, and persons found “unsuitable” may be required to dispose of their shares”).|
These provisions could make it more difficult for a third-party to acquire us, even if the third-party’s offer may be considered beneficial by many shareholders. As a result, shareholders may be limited in their ability to obtain a premium for their shares.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
Our corporate headquarters is located at 400 Spectrum Center Drive, Suite 1900, Irvine, California 92618. In addition to our corporate headquarters, we have regional offices in Bulgaria, Israel, and Estonia. We lease our corporate headquarters and each of our regional offices. We believe that our current facilities are adequate to meet our needs for the near future and that suitable additional or alternative space will be available on commercially reasonable terms to accommodate our foreseeable future operations.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
The Company may be subject to legal actions and claims arising from contracts or other matters from time to time in the ordinary course of business. Management is not aware of any pending or threatened litigation, which are considered other than routine legal proceedings. The Company believes the ultimate disposition or resolution of its routine legal proceedings will not have a material adverse effect on its financial position, results of operations or liquidity.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Our ordinary shares have been listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “GAN” since May 7, 2020. Prior to that date, our predecessor entity, GAN plc, was a public limited company incorporated under the laws of England and Wales. Since 2013 through the date of our initial public offering, the ordinary shares of GAN plc traded on AIM, a market operated by the London Stock Exchange under the symbol “GAN.”
On May 5, 2020, we affected a reorganization and share exchange in which 21,593,910 ordinary shares of GAN Limited, together with cash consideration in the aggregate amount of £2.0 million, were issued to the shareholders of GAN plc in exchange for all outstanding ordinary shares of GAN plc, after which time GAN plc became a wholly-owned subsidiary of GAN Limited.
On March 22, 2023, we had 118 holders of record of our ordinary shares. A substantially greater number of holders are beneficial owners whose shares are held of record banks, brokers and other nominees. The transfer agent and registrar for our ordinary shares is Continental Stock Transfer and Trust Company.
We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our ordinary shares. We currently intend to retain our future earnings, if any, to finance the operation and expansion of our business. We do not expect to pay cash dividends on our ordinary shares in the foreseeable future. Our payment of dividends in the future, if any, will be determined by our Board of Directors and will be paid out of funds legally available for that purpose.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
On May 31, 2022, the Board of Directors re-authorized and extended the share repurchase program initially authorized on November 30, 2021, which permits the Company to purchase up to $5.0 million of the Company’s outstanding ordinary shares on the Nasdaq Stock Market. The extension was publicly announced on June 13, 2022. Repurchases are executed through open market purchases or privately negotiated transactions. The Company may purchase the ordinary shares at the prevailing market price at the time of purchase. The Company is not obligated to acquire any particular number of shares and repurchases may be suspended or terminated at any time. The share repurchase program expired on November 3, 2022.
During the quarter ended December 31, 2022, the Company had no share repurchases under this program.
ITEM 6. [RESERVED]
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with the Company’s consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto. Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis or set forth elsewhere, including information with respect to our plans and strategy for our business, includes forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. You should review the “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and “Risk Factors” sections for a discussion of important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results described in or implied by the forward-looking statements contained in the following discussion and analysis.
GAN Limited is a Bermuda exempted holding company and through its subsidiaries, operates in two lines of business. We are a business-to-business (“B2B”) supplier of enterprise Software-as-a-Service (“SaaS”) solutions for online casino gaming, commonly referred to as iGaming, and online sports betting applications. Beginning with our January 2021 acquisition of Vincent Group p.l.c., a Malta public limited company (“Coolbet”), we are also a business-to-consumer (“B2C”) developer and operator of an online sports betting and casino platform, which offers consumers in select markets in Northern Europe, Latin America and Canada a digital portal for engaging in sports betting, online casino games and poker. These two lines of business are also the Company’s reportable segments.
The B2B segment develops, markets and sells instances of and GameSTACK technology, GAN Sports, and iSight Back Office that incorporates comprehensive player registration, account funding and back-office accounting and management tools that enable casino operators to efficiently, confidently and effectively extend their online presence. In 2022, we won a prestigious industry award from EGR North America – Best Customer Onboarding Partner – in recognition of our expertise and commitment for delivering industry-leading gaming solutions to land-based casinos and GAN was named a “Rising Star in Sports Betting” for the SBC North America Awards 2022. GAN Sports, our newest product offering following the acquisition of Coolbet, launched in September 2022 and aims to provide a best-in-class B2B sports betting product in the U.S. and Canada.
The B2C segment includes the operations of Coolbet. Coolbet develops and operates an online sports betting and casino platform that is accessible through its website in markets across Northern Europe, Latin America, and Canada. In April of 2022, Coolbet won a prestigious award at the International Gaming Awards in London – Mobile Operator of the Year – in recognition of our user-friendly mobile site and available innovative product features, and in September 2022, Coolbet won the Northern European Operator of the Year award at the SBC Awards 2022 in Barcelona.
To meet demand and serve our growing number of U.S. casino operator clients, we continue to invest in our software engineering capabilities and expand our operational support. The most significant component of our operating costs generally relate to our employee salary costs and benefits. Also, operating costs include technology and corporate infrastructure related-costs, as well as marketing expenditures with a focus on increasing and retaining B2C end-users.
Our net loss was $197.5 million and $30.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
We believe that our current technology is highly scalable and can support the launch of our product offerings for new customers and in new jurisdictions. We expect to improve our profitability through increased revenues from:
|●||organic growth of our existing casino operators,|
|●||expansion into newly regulated jurisdictions with existing and new customers,|
|●||margin expansion driven by the integration of Coolbet’s sports betting technology in our B2B product offerings,|
|●||strategically reducing our existing worldwide global workforce to simplify and streamline our organization and strengthen the overall competitiveness of our B2B segment,|
|●||revenue expansion from the roll-out of our Super RGS content offering to B2C operators who are not already clients, and|
|●||organic growth of our B2C business in existing and new jurisdictions.|
We hold a strategic U.S. patent, which governs the linkage of on-property reward cards to their counterpart internet gambling accounts together with bilateral transmission of reward points between the internet gaming technology system and the land-based casino management system present in all U.S. casino properties. In February 2021, we reached an agreement to license our U.S. patent to a second major U.S. casino operator group and we may license our patent to other major U.S. internet gaming operators in the future.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Our accounting policies are more fully described in Note 2 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies of our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this report. As disclosed in Note 2, the preparation of financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires the use of judgments and estimates. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under current circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily available from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates. We consider the following to be our most critical accounting estimates that involve significant judgment:
Our revenue recognition policies described in Note 2 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, require us to make significant judgments and estimates. Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 606 requires that we apply judgments or estimates to determine the performance obligations, the stand-alone selling prices of our performance obligations to customers, allocation of the transaction price, and the timing of transfer of control of the respective performance obligations. The evaluation of each of these criteria requires consideration of contract specific facts and circumstances is naturally judgmental, but certain judgments could significantly affect the amount or timing of revenue recognized if we were to reach a different conclusion. The critical judgments we are required to make in our assessment of contracts with customers that could significantly affect the timing or amount of revenue recognized are:
Stand-Alone Selling Price and Allocation of Transaction Price. ASC 606 requires that we determine the stand-alone selling price for our goods and services as a basis for allocating the transaction price to the identified distinct performance obligations in our contracts with customers. Because we often bundle the selling price for hardware or services or we may license systems for which the solutions we provide are highly customized and therefore the prices vary, the determination of a stand-alone selling price requires significant judgment.
For performance obligations that involve multiple products or services, we allocate the transaction price to be applied to each performance obligation based on an estimation of the stand-alone selling price. We typically determine the stand-alone selling price based on the amounts that we charge when sold separately in similar circumstances to similar customers. In instances where the stand-alone selling price cannot be determined using an adjusted market assessment approach, we have used other allocation methods in accordance with ASC 606, including a residual approach to allocate a stand-alone selling price.
We account for business combinations in accordance with ASC 805, Business Combinations. This standard requires the acquiring entity in a business combination to recognize all (and only) the assets acquired and liabilities assumed in the transaction and establishes the acquisition-date fair value as the measurement objective for all assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination.
Determining the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed requires management judgment and often involves the use of significant estimates and assumptions with respect to the timing and amounts of future cash inflows and outflows, discount rates, market prices and asset lives, among other items. These estimates are based on information obtained from management of the acquired company and historical experience and are generally made with the assistance of an independent valuation firm. These estimates can include, but are not limited to, the cash flows that an asset is expected to generate in the future, and the cost savings expected to be derived from acquiring an asset. Any changes in the underlying assumptions can impact the estimates of fair value by material amounts, which can in turn materially impact our results of operations. These estimates are inherently uncertain and unpredictable, and, if different estimates were used, the purchase price for the acquisition could be allocated to the acquired assets and liabilities differently from the allocation that we have made. In addition, unanticipated events and circumstances may occur which affect the accuracy or validity of such estimates, and, if such events occur, we may be required to record a charge against the value ascribed to an acquired asset or an increase in the amounts recorded for assumed liabilities.
If the subsequent actual results and updated projections of the underlying business activity change compared with the assumptions and projections used to develop these fair values, we may have to record impairment charges in the future. In addition, we have estimated the useful lives of certain acquired assets, and these lives are used to compute depreciation and amortization expense. If our estimates of the useful lives change, depreciation and amortization expense may be required to be accelerated or decelerated.
Goodwill is reviewed for impairment annually as of October 1st, or more frequently if indicators of impairment exist. A significant amount of judgment is involved in determining if an indicator of goodwill impairment has occurred. Such indicators may include, among others: a significant decline in expected future cash flows; a significant adverse change in legal factors or in the business climate; unanticipated competition; and the testing for recoverability of a significant asset group within a reporting unit. Our goodwill impairment analysis also includes a comparison of the aggregate estimated fair value of all reporting units to our total market capitalization. Therefore, our shares may trade below our book value and a significant and sustained decline in our share price and market capitalization could result in goodwill impairment charges. Any adverse change in these factors could have a significant impact on the recoverability of these assets and could have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
Goodwill impairment testing involves a comparison of the estimated fair value of a reporting unit to its respective carrying amount, which may be performed utilizing either a qualitative or quantitative assessment. A reporting unit is defined as an operating segment or one level below an operating segment. The qualitative assessment evaluates various events and circumstances, such as macro-economic conditions, industry and market conditions, cost factors, relevant events and financial trends that may impact a reporting unit’s fair value. If it is determined that the estimated fair value of the reporting unit is more-likely-than-not less than the carrying amount, including goodwill, a quantitative assessment is required. Otherwise, no further analysis is necessary.
In a quantitative assessment, the fair value of a reporting unit is determined and then compared to its carrying value. A reporting unit’s fair value is determined based upon consideration of various valuation methodologies, including the income approach, which utilizes projected future cash flows discounted at rates commensurate with the risks involved, and multiples of current and future earnings. If the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value, a goodwill impairment charge is recognized for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value; however, the loss recognized cannot exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit.
We estimated the fair value of all reporting units utilizing both a market approach and an income approach (discounted cash flow) and the significant assumptions used to measure fair value include discount rate, terminal value factors, revenue and EBITDA multiples, and control premiums.
The income approach used to test our reporting units includes the projection of estimated operating results and cash flows, discounted using a weighted-average cost of capital (“WACC”) that reflects current market conditions appropriate to each reporting unit. Those projections involve management’s best estimates of economic and market conditions over the projected period, including growth rates in revenues and costs and best estimates of future expected changes in operating margins and cash expenditures. Other significant assumptions and estimates used in the income approach include terminal value growth rates, future estimates of capital expenditures and changes in future working capital requirements. In addition, the WACC utilized to discount estimated future cash flows is sensitive to changes in interest rates and other market rates in place at the time the assessment is performed.
The market approach used to test our reporting units included the review of revenue and EBITDA multiples from other publicly traded companies in the industry used to derive their enterprise values and the application of those multiples to the relevant earnings streams within each of our reportable segments.
We confirmed the reasonableness of the estimated reporting unit fair values under the income and market approaches by reconciling those fair values to our enterprise value and market capitalization. Data points from other market participants were additionally used which suggested that the lower end of valuation ranges related to our B2C segment may be applicable while adverse regulatory changes in certain markets in which we operate were pending.
Management measures equity-classified share-based awards at fair value at the date of grant and expenses the cost on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the entire award, generally defined as the vesting period, along with a corresponding increase in equity. Forfeitures are recorded in the period in which they occur with the impact, if any, recognized in the consolidated statements of operation with a corresponding adjustment to equity.
The fair value of share options is determined using a Black-Scholes model, taking into consideration management’s best estimate of the expected life of the option and the estimated number of shares that will eventually vest. Application of the option-pricing model involves the use of estimates, judgment and assumptions that are highly complex and subjective and are outlined below as they pertain to grants subsequent to our initial public offering.
Expected Term – represents the period of time that awards granted are expected to be outstanding. In determining the expected term of the award, future exercise and forfeiture patterns are estimated from historical employee exercise behavior. These patterns are also affected by the vesting conditions of the award. Changes in the future exercise behavior of employees or in the vesting period of the award could result in a change in the expected term. An increase in the expected term would result in an increase to our expense.
Volatility – a measure of the amount by which the price of our ordinary shares is expected to fluctuate each year during the expected term of the award. Our expected volatility is determined by reference to volatility of certain identified peer groups, share trading information and share prices on the Nasdaq. The implied volatilities from traded options are impacted by changes in market conditions. An increase in the volatility would result in an increase in our expense.
Expected Dividend Yield – is based on our historical dividend yield, which is zero – as we have not historically paid dividends. If we were to begin paying dividends, the dividend yield would increase and result in a decrease in our expense.
Risk-Free Interest Rate – is based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve in effect at time of grant. As the risk-free interest rate increases, the expected term increases, resulting in an increase in our expense.
Capitalization and Impairment of Internally Generated Intangible Assets
Management reviews expenditures, including wages and benefits for employees, incurred on development activities and, based on their judgment of the costs incurred, assesses whether the expenditure meets the capitalization criteria set out in ASC 350 and the intangible assets accounting policy within the notes to our consolidated financial statements. Management specifically considers if additional expenditure on projects relates to maintenance or new development projects. In addition, the useful life of capitalized development costs is determined by management at the time the software is brought into use and is regularly reviewed for appropriateness. For unique software products we control and develop, the life is based on historical experience with similar products as well as anticipation of future events, which may impact their useful economic life, such as changes in technology.
Management reviews intangible assets at each reporting period to determine potential impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an intangible asset may not be fully recoverable. Recoverability is measured by comparing the carrying amount of the intangible asset with the future undiscounted cash flows the asset is expected to generate. Management must make estimates related to future cash flows and discount rates that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset for which the estimates of future cash flows have not been adjusted. If such assets are considered impaired, an impairment loss would be measured by comparing the amount by which the carrying value exceeds the fair value of the intangible asset.
We operate in a number of jurisdictions and our effective tax rate is based on our income, statutory tax rates, tax planning opportunities and transfer pricing policies in the various jurisdictions in which we operate. Judgment is required in respect of the interpretation of state, federal and international tax law and practice as e-commerce and tax continues to evolve. Our income tax rate is significantly affected by the tax rates that apply to our foreign earnings.
Deferred tax assets represent amounts available to reduce income taxes payable in future years. Such assets arise from temporary differences between the financial reporting and tax basis of assets and liabilities, as well as from net operating losses and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets are recognized to the extent that it is probable future taxable profits will be available against which the temporary differences can be utilized. This assessment of future taxable profits relies heavily on estimates that are based on a number of factors, including historical results and future business forecasts. To the extent deferred tax assets are not expected to be realized, we record a valuation allowance.
Research and development tax relief is recognized as an asset once there is sufficient evidence that any amount we may claim will be received. A key judgement arises with respect to the likelihood of a claim being successful when a claim has been quantified but has not been received. In making this judgement, we consider the nature of the claim and in particular the track record of success of previous claims.
We are subject to income taxes in numerous jurisdictions and there are transactions for which the ultimate tax determination cannot be assessed with certainty in the ordinary course of business. We recognize a provision for situations that might arise in the foreseeable future based on an assessment of the probabilities as to whether additional taxes will be due. An uncertain tax position is recognized as a benefit only if it is “more likely than not” that the tax position would be sustained in a tax examination, with a tax examination being presumed to occur. The amount recognized is the largest amount of tax benefit that is greater than 50% likely of being realized on examination. For tax positions not meeting the “more likely than not” test, no tax benefit is recorded. Penalties and interest incurred related to underpayment of income tax are classified as income tax expense in the period incurred.
Consolidated Results of Operations
Year Ended December 31, 2022 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2021
The following table sets forth our consolidated results of operations for the periods indicated:
|(dollars in thousands)|
|Operating costs and expenses|
|Cost of revenue (1)||41,634||41,373||261||0.6||%|
|Sales and marketing||28,095||22,266||5,829||26.2||%|
|Product and technology||26,345||22,548||3,797||16.8||%|
|General and administrative (1)||46,906||48,881||(1,975||)||(4.0||)%|
|Depreciation and amortization||23,276||16,808||6,468||38.5||%|
|Total operating costs and expenses||334,037||155,376||178,661||n.m.|
|Other loss (income), net||1,047||(408||)||1,455||n.m.|
|Loss before income taxes||(193,556||)||(30,805||)||(162,751||)||n.m.|
|Income tax expense (benefit)||3,942||(211||)||4,153||n.m.|
(1) Excludes depreciation and amortization expense
n.m. = not meaningful
The following table sets forth our consolidated revenue by geographic region, for the periods indicated:
|December 31,||Percentage of Revenue||Change|
|(dollars in thousands)|
|Rest of the world||6,743||6,629||4.8||%||5.4||%||114||1.7||%|
Revenue was $141.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, an increase of $17.4 million from the comparable period in 2021. The increase was attributable to an increase of $8.5 million in our B2B revenues, which was driven by an increase in platform and content license fees revenue resulting from growth in existing customers, and an increase of $8.9 million in our B2C revenues, which was attributable to active customer growth in Latin America.
In Europe, our B2C revenues decreased $0.3 million as a result of our B2C revenues in Euros weakening relative to the U.S. Dollar. The revenues presented in U.S Dollars decreased despite an increase in the underlying revenues denominated in Euros of 11.5%. The increase in underlying Euro revenues was a result of increased customer activity. On a constant currency basis, B2C revenues increased by $4.6 million but was offset by the unfavorable currency effect of $4.9 million. The B2B segment further experienced declines in its RMiG business in Europe that resulted in an additional $2.0 million decrease in revenue.
The increase in revenue in the United States as compared to the prior period was the result of increased RMiG revenues within the B2B segment.
Cost of Revenue
Cost of revenue was $41.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, an increase of $0.3 million from the comparable period in 2021. The increase was attributable to an increase of $0.6 million in our B2C operations’ cost of gaming revenues, which was primarily driven by increased customer growth in Latin America. This increase was partially offset by a decrease of $0.3 million in our B2B segment, which was primarily due to a decrease in cost of development services and other revenue as a result of lower volume of hardware sales and related cost of revenue in the current period than in the prior year comparable period.
Sales and Marketing
Sales and marketing expense was $28.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, an increase $5.8 million from the comparable period in 2021. The increase was primarily driven by an increase of $7.1 million in sales and marketing activities within our B2C operations in order to attract additional end-users in Latin America. The increase was partially offset by a decrease of $1.1 million in personnel costs, largely resulting from cost saving initiatives during the current period.
Product and Technology
Product and technology expense was $26.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, an increase of $3.8 million from the comparable period in 2021. The increase was primarily attributable to a reduction in capitalized development costs as a result of product deployment and launches which occurred during the current period that did not occur during the prior year comparable period.
General and Administrative
General and administrative expense was $46.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, a decrease of $2.0 million from the comparable period in 2021. This decrease was primarily driven by cost saving initiatives during the current period, largely resulting in a reduction in professional fees.
We recorded an impairment charge of $166.0 million during the year ended December 31, 2022, an increase of $162.5 million from the comparable period in 2021.
The market price of our publicly traded shares and resulting market capitalization of our business has experienced a significant and sustained decline since our acquisition of Coolbet. As a result of an interim goodwill impairment assessment we performed as of June 30, 2022 we recognized an impairment of $28.9 million to goodwill. Additionally, in December 2022, we revised our 2023 budget and long-range plan as a result of material reductions in our expected future cash flows from our B2B segment, a strategic decision not to pursue and invest further in our original content strategy, and a re-assessment of our growth strategy related to our B2C segment. As a result, we identified negative market indicators and trends related to the value of our reporting units. These events and circumstances indicated impairment may be probable and an additional quantitative goodwill impairment assessment as of December 31, 2022 was performed which resulted in impairment of goodwill of $108.0 million. We recognized total impairment to goodwill of $136.9 million during the year ended December 31, 2022.
These changes to our 2023 budget and long-range plan resulted in impairment charges recognized to our intangible assets associated with our content licensing arrangement and our capitalized software development costs of $19.1 million and $10.0 million, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2022.
The impairment charge of $3.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2021 related to the termination notice we served to a third-party content provider in January 2022, as certain conditions associated with the completion of contractual obligations had not been satisfied by the agreed upon period in 2021. In accordance with the agreement, termination for cause results in a return of the initial payment of $3.5 million, however we have yet to receive the initial payment back.
Depreciation and Amortization
Depreciation and amortization expense was $23.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, an increase of $6.5 million from the comparable period in 2021. Of the increase, $4.1 million was attributable to the amortization expense on intangible assets related to our content licensing arrangement. The remaining increase was attributable to higher depreciation and amortization of new assets placed-in service as a result of product launches that occurred during the prior year comparable period.
Income Tax Expense
We recorded income tax expense of $3.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, reflecting an effective tax rate of (2.0)%, compared to income tax benefit of $0.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, reflecting an effective tax rate of 0.7%. Our country of domicile is Bermuda, which effectively has a 0% statutory tax rate as it does not impose taxes on profits, income, dividends, or capital gains. The difference between this 0% tax rate and the effective income tax rate for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021 was due primarily to a mix of earnings in foreign jurisdictions that are subject to current tax and loss carryforwards in certain jurisdictions that are not expected to be recognized.
Segment Operating Results
We report our operating results by segment in accordance with the “management approach.” The management approach designates the internal reporting used by our Chief Operating Decision Maker (“CODM”), who is our Chief Executive Officer, for making decisions and assessing performance of our reportable segments.
Year Ended December 31, 2022 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2021
The following table sets forth our segment results for the periods indicated:
|Year Ended||Percentage of|
|December 31,||Segment Revenue||Change|
|(dollars in thousands)|
|Cost of revenue (1)||11,248||11,600||20.8||%||25.5||%||(352||)||(3.0||)%|
|B2B segment contribution||$||42,797||$||33,969||79.2||%||74.5||%||$||8,828||26.0||%|
|Cost of revenue (1)||30,386||29,773||34.7||%||37.9||%||613||2.1||%|
|B2C segment contribution||$||57,097||$||48,821||65.3||%||62.1||%||$||8,276||17.0||%|
(1) Excludes depreciation and amortization expense
n.m. = not meaningful
B2B revenue increased $8.5 million primarily due to an increase in platform and content license fees revenue of $6.6 million, resulting from organic growth in existing U.S. customers. Additionally, B2B development services and other revenue increased $1.9 million, driven by expansion into new markets, including Ontario, Canada.
B2B cost of revenue decreased $0.3 million primarily as a result of lower volume of hardware sales compared to the prior year period.
Segment contribution for B2B, which excludes depreciation and amortization expense, increased 26.0%, which was primarily driven by an increase in platform and content license fees revenue and decreased revenues and related cost of revenue related to a higher volume of hardware sales that occurred during the prior period than in the current period.
B2C revenue increased $8.9 million primarily due to growth in the number of active customers in our Latin American markets during the current period.
B2C cost of revenue increased $0.6 million, which was primarily attributable to increases in content license fees and gaming duties of $0.6 million and $0.6 million, respectively, which were driven by increased revenues. The increases were partially offset by a decrease of $0.9 million in processing fees due to improved terms on payment processing deals.
Segment contribution for B2C, which excludes depreciation and amortization expense increased 17.0%. This increase was primarily driven by an increase in gaming revenues and an increase in segment contribution margin as a result of improved terms on payment processing deals for the year ended December 31, 2022.
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
Management uses the non-GAAP measure of Adjusted EBITDA to measure its financial performance. Specifically, it uses Adjusted EBITDA (i) as a measure to compare our operating performance from period to period, as it removes the effect of items not directly resulting from our core operations, and (ii) as a means of assessing our core business performance against others in the industry, because it eliminates some of the effects that are generated by differences in capital structure, depreciation, tax effects and unusual and infrequent events.
We define Adjusted EBITDA as net loss before interest expense (income), net, income tax expense (benefit), depreciation and amortization, impairments, share-based compensation expense and related expense, restructuring costs, and other items which our Board of Directors considers to be infrequent or unusual in nature. The presentation of Adjusted EBITDA is not intended to be used in isolation or as a substitute for any measure prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP and Adjusted EBITDA may exclude financial information that some investors may consider important in evaluating our performance. Because Adjusted EBITDA is not a U.S. GAAP measure, the way we define Adjusted EBITDA may not be comparable to similarly titled measures used by other companies in the industry.
Below is a reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to net loss, the most comparable U.S. GAAP measure, as presented in the consolidated statements of operations for the years specified:
|Income tax expense (benefit)||3,942||(211||)|
|Interest expense (income), net||4,279||(30||)|
|Other income, net (1)||(3,000||)||(378||)|
|Depreciation and amortization||23,276||16,808|
|Share-based compensation and related expense (2)||7,262||8,136|
(1) Other income for the year ended December 31, 2022 includes a $3.0 million release of the contingent liability that was initially recognized upon execution of the amendment to an agreement with a content provider. See Note 3 - Acquisition in the accompanying consolidated financial statements for further details. Other income, net for the year ended December 31, 2021 primarily consists of a research and development tax credit of $0.4 million.
(2) Includes $7.6 million and $7.9 million in equity-classified expense for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively, $0.1 million and $0.4 million in liability-classified expense, for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Such amounts excluded capitalized amounts. Refer to Note 9 – Share-based Compensation in the accompanying consolidated financial statements for further details.
(3) Includes impairment to (i) goodwill of $136.9 million, (ii) intangible assets of $19.1 million, and (iii) capitalized software development costs of $10.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. Refer to Note 5 – Capitalized Software Development Costs, net and Note 6 – Goodwill and Intangible Assets in the accompanying consolidated financial statements for further details. Includes $3.5 million related to an initial content license payment for the year ended December 31, 2021. Refer to Note 16. Commitments and Contingencies in the accompanying consolidated financial statements for further details.
Key Performance Indicators
Our management uses the following key performance indicators (“KPIs”) as indicators of trends and results of the business. These KPIs give our management an indication of the level of engagement between the player and the Company’s platforms. No estimation is necessary in quantifying these KPIs, nor do they represent U.S. GAAP based measurements. These KPIs are subject to various risks such as customer concentration, competition, licensing and regulation, and macroeconomic conditions. Refer to “Item 1A. Risk Factors” for further risks associated with our business which would affect these KPIs.
|B2B Gross Operator Revenue (in millions)||$||1,224.4||$||921.1||$||303.3||32.9||%|
|B2B Take Rate||4.4||%||4.9||%||(0.5||)%||N/A|
|B2C Active Customers (in thousands)||559||394||165||41.9||%|
|B2C Marketing Spend Ratio||21||%||15||%||6.0||%||N/A|
|B2C Sports Margin||6.9||%||6.8||%||0.1||%||N/A|
B2B Gross Operator Revenue
We define B2B Gross Operator Revenue as the sum of our B2B corporate customers’ gross revenue from SIM, gross gaming revenue from RMiG, and gross sports wins from sportsbook offerings. B2B Gross Operator Revenue, which is not comparable to financial information presented in conformity with U.S. GAAP, gives management and users of our financial statements an indication of the extent of transactions processed through our B2B corporate customers’ platforms and allows management to understand the extent of activity that our platform is processing.
The increase in Gross Operator Revenue for the year ended December 31, 2022, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2021, was driven primarily by new client launches in the United States as a result of organic growth and expansion into Ontario, Canada.
B2B Take Rate
We define B2B Take Rate as a quotient of B2B segment revenue retained by the Company over the total Gross Operator Revenue generated by our B2B corporate customers. B2B Take Rate gives management and users of our financial statements an indication of the impact of the statutory terms and the efficiency of the commercial terms on the business.
The decrease in B2B Take Rate for the year ended December 31, 2022, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2021, was driven by a shift in the relative amounts of revenue from SIM and RMiG in Italy to RMiG from U.S. states that inherently have a lower take rates due to higher taxes, specifically Pennsylvania and Michigan, and promotional bonus spend.
B2C Active Customers
We define B2C Active Customers as a user that places a wager during the period. This metric allows management to monitor the customer segmentation, growth drivers, and ultimately creates opportunities to identify and add value to the user experience. This metric allows management and users of the financial statements to measure the platform traffic and track related trends.
The increase in B2C Active Customers for the year ended December 31, 2022, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2021, was primarily attributable to an uptick in business activity throughout the current period. This can be attributed to a combination of increased marketing expenditures throughout the year, as well as organic growth across all regions, with a particular emphasis on Latin America. During the fourth quarter of 2022, the Company experienced a significant surge in business activity across all markets, largely due to the World Cup 2022. This increased activity resulted in an all-time high in active customer count. Specifically, during the fourth quarter as the World Cup took place, the Company observed a monthly average of active customer count that was over 40% higher than the average for the rest of the year.
B2C Marketing Spend Ratio
We define B2C Marketing Spend Ratio as the total B2C direct marketing expense for the period divided by the total B2C revenues. This metric allows management to measure the success of marketing costs during a given period. Additionally, this metric allows management to compare across jurisdictions and other subsets, as an additional indication of return on marketing investment.
The increase in B2C Marketing Spend Ratio for the year ended December 31, 2022, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2021, was primarily driven by increased marketing spend in Latin America, and Ontario, Canada. In Latin America, we invested in developing greater brand awareness through several marketing initiatives and sponsorships and the Ontario, Canada, market required higher acquisition spend due to increased competition in a newly regulated jurisdiction.
B2C Sports Margin
We define B2C Sports Margin as the ratio of wagers minus winnings to total amount wagered, adjusted for open wagers at period end. Sports betting involves a user placing a bet on the outcome of a sporting event with the chance to win a pre-determined amount, often referred to as fixed odds. Our B2C sportsbook revenue is generated by setting odds that are intended to provide a built-in theoretical margin in each sports bet offered to our users. This metric allows management to measure sportsbook performance against its expected outcome.
The increase in B2C Sports Margin for the year ended December 31, 2022, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2021, was primarily driven by an overall increase in business volumes, with a particular emphasis on Latin America. The region’s share of turnover increased, and due to its higher margin, this led to a slight increase in the weighted average of B2C sports margin.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Sources of Liquidity
As of December 31, 2022, we had an accumulated deficit of $274.9 million. During the year ended December 31, 2022, we incurred a net loss of $197.5 million, which primarily related to impairment of (i) goodwill ($136.9 million), (ii) intangible assets ($19.1 million), and (iii) capitalized software development costs ($10.0 million). We used $1.2 million of cash in operations during the year ended December 31, 2022. Cash on hand totaled $45.9 million as of December 31, 2022 and liabilities to users totaled $10.7 million as of December 31, 2022.
Since our inception, we have primarily funded our operations through cash generated from operations, cash generated from financing activities including our U.S. initial public offering and term credit facility, and cash on hand. In May 2020, we completed our U.S. initial public offering under which we sold an aggregate of 7,337,000 ordinary shares for net proceeds of $57.4 million and in December 2020, we conducted a follow-on offering under which we sold 6,790,956 ordinary shares for net proceeds of $98.5 million. In January 2021, we completed the acquisition of Coolbet for a purchase price of $218.1 million, including the issuance of 5,260,516 ordinary shares, replacement equity-based awards valued at $0.3 million and cash of $111.1 million, which was funded from the follow-on offering proceeds and available cash on hand. During the year ended December 31, 2022, we repurchased $1.0 million of our own shares as we believed our share price was undervalued and did not reflect the long-term opportunities ahead of us.
In April 2022, we entered into a $30.0 million term credit facility with net proceeds of $27.6 million (the “Credit Facility”). The Credit Facility contains affirmative and negative covenants, including certain financial covenants associated with our financial results. The financial covenants test periods begin on March 31, 2023. We were in compliance with all financial covenants as of December 31, 2022, however given our cash flow and net losses for the year ended December 31, 2022, historical performance, and reasonably estimable near-term future cash flows, it is possible that we could violate financial covenants in the future which could trigger an acceleration of all amounts due and the termination of commitments under the Credit Facility.
On April 13, 2023, we executed agreements to amend the Credit Facility to waive all events of default, amend certain financial covenants, assign the rights to the Credit Facility from our existing lender to a third party, and increase the principal balance from $30.0 million to $42.0 million with accrued paid in-kind (“PIK”) interest of 8.0% per year (together, forming the “Amended Credit Facility”). The Amended Credit Facility becomes effective upon cash settlement of payments initiated on April 13, 2023, which is probable to occur within one week of initiation and would represent a cure of any events of default under the Credit Facility and thereby prevent any amounts from becoming due and payable under the Credit Facility’s subjective acceleration clause. The Amended Credit Facility contains a financial covenant, among other covenants, requiring minimum liquidity of $10.0 million. Refer to Note 17 – Subsequent Events in the accompanying consolidated financial statements for further detail with respect to the Amended Credit Facility.
In the fourth quarter of 2022, we initiated plans to address our liquidity needs and improve our operations and cash position primarily by (i) reducing and deferring personnel and operational costs for non-strategic initiatives, (ii) amending the Credit Facility to reduce cash interest obligations and amend financial covenants, (iii) identifying sources of additional capital, (iv) continuing investment in the growth areas of our consolidated operations, (v) continuing our cost saving initiatives first implemented during the year ended December 31, 2022, and (vi) initiating a strategic review process to assess a range of strategic alternatives.
In accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 205-40, Going Concern, we have evaluated whether there are conditions and events, considered in the aggregate, that raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern within one year after the date after the accompanying consolidated financial statement to this Report are issued. The Company’s current financial condition, liquidity resources, and planned near-term cash flows from operations are sensitive to changes in macro-economic conditions and the substantial variability inherent in the Company’s wager-based revenues streams. These factors along with the potential covenant breaches are indicators that raise uncertainty related to the ability of the Company to meet its current obligations as they come due, however we believe that the Amended Credit Facility and intent and ability to complete the remaining cost mitigation plans mitigate this concern and alleviate this uncertainty. The accompanying consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty. Accordingly, the consolidated financial statements have been prepared on a basis that assumes the Company will continue as a going concern and which contemplates the realization of assets and satisfaction of liabilities and commitments in the ordinary course of business.
To the extent that our current resources, including our ability to generate operating cash flows, are insufficient to satisfy our cash requirements, we may seek additional equity or debt financing. Our ability to do so depends on prevailing economic conditions and other factors, many of which are beyond our control. We do not currently have any such credit facilities or similar debt arrangements in place, outside of the Amended Credit Facility as described above, and cannot provide any assurance as to the availability or terms of any future financing that we may require to support our operations. If the needed financing is not available, or if the terms of financing are less desirable than we expect, we may be forced to decrease our level of investment in new products and technologies, discontinue further expansion of our business, scale back our existing operations, or divest of assets, any of which could have an adverse impact on our business and financial prospects.
Material Cash Commitments
Our primary uses of cash include funding our ongoing working capital needs, content licensing discussed below, and developing and maintaining our proprietary software platforms. Such capital allocations are contemplated while considering other opportunities we may have to deploy our capital.
During the year ended December 31, 2021, we entered into a Content Licensing Agreement and in April 2022 we amended the Content Licensing Agreement (together the “Agreement”) with a third-party gambling content provider specializing in developing and licensing interactive games. The Agreement grants us exclusive right to use and distribute the online gaming content in North America. The content provider is committed to developing a minimum number of games for our exclusive use over the five-year term, subject to extensions. In exchange, we are required to pay fixed fees, totaling $30.0 million, of which $5.0 million was due upon execution of the Agreement, and the remaining fixed fees are paid systematically over the initial five-year term. Additional payments could be required if our total revenue generated from the licensed content exceeds certain stipulated annual and cumulative thresholds during the contract term. In March 2023 the Company amended and restated its Content Licensing Agreement with the Content Provider which resulted in a reduced contract term and a reduction in the fixed fees payable under the arrangement by $15 million. Refer to Note 17 – Subsequent Events in the accompanying consolidated financial statements for further detail.
The execution of our growth strategy will require continued significant capital expenditures, and we expect to continue investing in our products and technologies as we seek to scale our business. Specifically, the key elements of our growth strategy include, but are not limited to, our continued rollout of GAN Sports with existing and new customers in regulated U.S. states, expansion of our international B2C operations, and the launch of regulated gaming in new U.S. states.
We utilized cash in investing activities of $19.1 million and $106.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Of these activities, $92.7 million related to the cash paid for the acquisition of Coolbet for the year ended December 31, 2021. We made payments during the year ended December 31, 2022 related to content licensing fees of $6.0 million. Expenditures related to purchases of gaming licenses represented $1.1 million and $0.4 million, respectively, internally developed capitalized software represented $10.1 million and $11.6 million, respectively, and property and equipment (including licenses for internal use software) represented $1.9 million and $1.9 million, respectively.
Cash Flow Analysis
A summary of our operating, investing and financing activities is shown in the following table:
|(dollars in thousands)||2022||2021||Amount||Percent|
|Net cash used in operating activities||$||(1,249||)||$||(5,003||)||3,754||(75.0||)%|
|Net cash used in investing activities||(19,103||)||(106,674||)||87,571||(82.1||)%|
|Net cash provided by financing activities||27,448||169||27,279||n.m.|
|Effect of foreign exchange rates on cash||(653||)||(1,669||)||1,016||(60.9||)%|
|Net increase (decrease) in cash||$||6,443||$||(113,177||)||$||119,620||n.m.|
n.m. = not meaningful
Net cash used in operating activities decreased $3.8 million primarily resulting from a decrease in net loss after adjustments to reconcile net loss to cash flows from operations of $4.8 million and a favorable fluctuation in working capital of $1.9 million. Additionally, we made interest payments of $2.4 million during the year ended December 31, 2022 related to our Credit Facility.
Net cash used in investing activities decreased $87.6 million primarily as a result of $92.7 million cash paid for the acquisition of Coolbet during the year ended December 31, 2021. This decrease was primarily offset by increases of $6.0 million in cash payments to third-party gambling content providers for the rights to use and distribute their online gaming content in North America, and an increase of $0.7 million in cash payments for gaming licenses in anticipation of new jurisdictional launches, and $1.5 million in spend for capitalized software development costs primarily related to product enhancements, and new features for both the B2B and B2C platforms.
Net cash provided by financing activities increased by $27.3 million primarily due to $27.6 million net cash proceeds associated with the Credit Facility, net of issuance costs, as well as $0.6 million in offering cost payments made in the prior period related to our acquisition of Coolbet which did not occur in the current period. These amounts were partially offset by our use of $1.0 million related to our share repurchase program during the current period.
ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISKS
As a smaller reporting company as defined by Item 10 of Regulation S-K, the Company is not required to provide the information required by this Item.
REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
Board of Directors and Shareholders
Opinion on the financial statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of GAN Limited (a Bermuda corporation) and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive loss, changes in shareholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2022, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2022, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
Basis for opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.
Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
/s/ GRANT THORNTON LLP
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2021.
Los Angeles, California
April 14, 2023
ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
|Accounts receivable, net of allowance for doubtful accounts of $250 and $120 at December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively||13,808||8,110|
|Other current assets||3,041||3,337|
|Total current assets||67,630||54,422|
|Capitalized software development costs, net||6,749||14,430|
|Intangible assets, net||24,955||35,893|
|LIABILITIES AND SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY|
|Accrued compensation and benefits||8,750||10,961|
|Accrued content license fees||2,214||2,402|
|Liabilities to users||10,683||8,984|
|Other current liabilities||4,448||5,418|
|Total current liabilities||32,532||33,033|
|Deferred income taxes||4,218||1,791|
|Content licensing liabilities||15,280|
|Commitments and contingencies (Note 16)|
|Ordinary shares, $par value, shares authorized, and shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively||429||422|
|Additional paid-in capital||328,998||319,551|
|Accumulated other comprehensive loss||(33,798||)||(19,576||)|
|Total shareholders’ equity||20,768||224,037|
|Total liabilities and shareholders’ equity||$||103,080||$||260,910|
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
|Operating costs and expenses|
|Cost of revenue (1)||41,634||41,373|
|Sales and marketing||28,095||22,266|
|Product and technology||26,345||22,548|
|General and administrative (1)||46,906||48,881|
|Depreciation and amortization||23,276||16,808|
|Total operating costs and expenses||334,037||155,376|
|Other loss (income), net||1,047||(408||)|
|Loss before income taxes||(193,556||)||(30,805||)|
|Income tax expense (benefit)||3,942||(211||)|
|Loss per share, basic and diluted||$||(4.66||)||$||(0.73||)|
|Weighted average ordinary shares outstanding, basic and diluted||42,359,523||42,023,327|
|(1)||Excludes depreciation and amortization expense|
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE LOSS
|Other comprehensive loss, net of tax|
|Foreign currency translation adjustments||(14,222||)||(16,699||)|
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(in thousands, except share amounts)
|Ordinary Shares||Additional Paid-in||Treasury||Accumulated|
|Balance at January 1, 2021||36,635,362||$||365||$||203,842||$||$||(45,766||)||$||(2,877||)||$||155,564|
|Foreign currency translation adjustments||—||(16,699||)||(16,699||)|
|Restricted share activity||69,012||1||54||55|
|Repurchase of restricted shares to pay tax liability||(3,627||)|
|Issuance of ordinary shares upon exercise of share options||289,480||3||852||855|
|Issuance of ordinary shares as partial consideration in Coolbet acquisition||5,260,516||53||106,630||106,683|
|Fair value of replacement equity awards issued as consideration in Coolbet acquisition||—||297||297|
|Balance at December 31, 2021||42,250,743||$||422||$||319,551||$||$||(76,360||)||$||(19,576||)||$||224,037|
|Foreign currency translation adjustments||—||(14,222||)||(14,222||)|
|Accrued liability settled through issuance of shares||—||913||913|
|Restricted share activity||471,489||5||134||139|
|Repurchase of restricted shares to pay tax liability (Note 9)||(140,141||)||(1||)||(268||)|
|Repurchases of ordinary shares||(303,113||)||(1,006||)||(1,006||)|
|Ordinary share retirement||—||(3||)||1,006||(1,003||)|
|Issuance of ordinary shares upon exercise of share options||375,416||4||718||722|
|Issuance of ordinary shares upon ESPP purchases||239,817||2||339||341|
|Balance at December 31, 2022||42,894,211||$||429||$||328,998||$||$||(274,861||)||$||(33,798||)||$||20,768|
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
|Cash Flows From Operating Activities|
|Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:|
|Amortization of software and intangible assets||21,747||15,732|
|Depreciation on property and equipment and finance lease right-of-use assets||1,529||1,077|
|Amortization of debt discount and debt issuance costs||582|
|Share-based compensation expense||7,070||8,136|
|Deferred income tax||3,250||(422||)|
|Change in contingent consideration||(3,000||)|
|Changes in operating assets and liabilities, net of acquisition:|
|Other current assets||41||(779||)|
|Accrued compensation and benefits||(1,708||)||3,782|
|Accrued content license fees||471|
|Liabilities to users||2,199||4,177|
|Other current liabilities||(939||)||156|
|Net cash used in operating activities||(1,249||)||(5,003||)|
|Cash Flows From Investing Activities|
|Cash paid for acquisition, net of cash acquired||(92,724||)|
|Expenditures for capitalized software development costs||(10,058||)||(11,588||)|
|Payments for content licensing arrangements||(6,000||)|
|Purchases of gaming licenses||(1,115||)||(433||)|
|Purchases of property and equipment||(1,930||)||(1,929||)|
|Net cash used in investing activities||(19,103||)||(106,674||)|
|Cash Flows From Financing Activities|
|Proceeds from issuance of long-term debt||30,000|
|Payments of offering costs||(604||)|
|Proceeds from exercise of share options||722||855|
|Proceeds from issuance of ordinary shares upon ESPP purchase||341|
|Principal payments on finance leases||(82||)|
|Repurchases of ordinary shares||(1,006||)|
|Repurchase of restricted shares to pay tax liability||(184||)|
|Payment of debt issuance costs||(2,425||)|
|Net cash provided by financing activities||27,448||169|
|Effect of foreign exchange rates on cash||(653||)||(1,669||)|
|Net increase (decrease) in cash||6,443||(113,177||)|
|Cash, beginning of period||39,477||152,654|
|Cash, end of period||$||45,920||$||39,477|
|Supplemental Cash Flow Information|
|Cash paid for:|
|Intangible assets acquired in business acquisition included in current and long-term liabilities||24,876|
|Accrued liability settled through issuance of shares||913|
|Ordinary shares issued as partial consideration to acquire all the outstanding shares of Coolbet||106,683|
|Issuance of unvested share options in exchange for unvested share options of Coolbet||297|
|Right-of-use asset obtained in exchange for new operating lease liabilities||252|
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
NOTE 1 — NATURE OF OPERATIONS
GAN Limited (the “Parent,” and with its subsidiaries, collectively the “Company”) is an exempted company limited by shares, incorporated and registered in Bermuda.
The Company is a business-to-business (“B2B”) supplier of a proprietary gaming system, GameSTACK™ (“GameSTACK”), which is used predominately by the U.S. land-based casino industry. For its B2B customers, GameSTACK is a turnkey technology solution for regulated real money internet gambling (“real money iGaming” or “RMiG”), online sports gaming, and virtual simulated gaming (“SIM”). In addition, the Company’s B2B segment offers GAN Sports, an in-house online and retail sports betting technology platform, through internet connected self-service kiosks deployed at casino properties and mobile solutions. The Company is also a business-to-consumer (“B2C”) developer and operator of an online sports betting and casino platform under its “Coolbet” brand, providing international users with access through www.coolbet.com to its sportsbook, casino games and poker products. The Company operates its B2C segment in markets across Northern Europe, Latin America, and Canada.
NOTE 2 — SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”). The consolidated financial statements include the results of the Parent and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the going concern basis. As of December 31, 2022, the Company had an accumulated deficit of $274.9 million, with cash of $45.9 million and liabilities to users of $10.7 million. During the year ended December 31, 2022, the Company incurred a net loss of $197.5 million, which primarily related to impairment of (i) goodwill ($136.9 million), (ii) intangible assets ($19.1 million), and (iii) capitalized software development costs ($10.0 million). Refer to Note 5 – Capitalized Software Development Costs, net and Note 6 – Goodwill and Intangible Assets. The Company used $1.2 million of cash in operations during the year ended December 31, 2022. In April 2022, a subsidiary of the Company entered into a $30.0 million term credit facility with net proceeds of $27.6 million (the “Credit Facility”). The Credit Facility contains affirmative and negative covenants, including certain financial covenants associated with our financial results. The financial covenants test periods begin on March 31, 2023. The Company was in compliance with all financial covenants associated with its Credit Facility as of December 31, 2022, however given the Company’s cash flow and net losses for the year ended December 31, 2022, historical performance, and reasonably estimable near-term future cash flows, it is possible that the Company could violate financial covenants in the future which could trigger an acceleration of all amounts due and the termination of commitments under the Credit Facility.
Additionally, the Company’s current financial condition, liquidity resources and planned near-term cash flows from operations are sensitive to changes in macro-economic conditions and the substantial variability inherent in the Company’s wager-based revenues streams. These factors along with the potential covenant breaches indicate uncertainty related to the ability of the Company to meet its current obligations as they come due.
In the fourth quarter of 2022, the Company initiated plans to address its liquidity needs and improve its operations and cash position primarily by (i) reducing and deferring personnel and operational costs for non-strategic initiatives, (ii) amending the Credit Facility to reduce cash interest obligations and amend financial covenants, (iii) identifying sources of additional capital, (iv) continuing investment in the growth areas of the Company’s consolidated operations, (v) continuing cost saving initiatives first implemented during the year ended December 31, 2022, and (vi) initiating a strategic review process to assess a range of strategic alternatives.
On April 13, 2023, a subsidiary of the Company executed agreements to amend the Credit Facility to waive all events of default, amend certain financial covenants, assign the rights to the Credit Facility from its existing lender to a third party, and increase the principal balance from $30.0 million to $42.0 million with accrued paid in-kind (“PIK”) interest of 8.0% per year (together, forming the “Amended Credit Facility”). The Amended Credit Facility becomes effective upon cash settlement of payments initiated on April 13, 2023, which is probable to occur within one week of initiation and would represent a cure of any events of default under the Credit Facility and thereby prevent any amounts from becoming due and payable under the Credit Facility’s subjective acceleration clause. The Amended Credit Facility contains a financial covenant, among other covenants, requiring minimum liquidity of $10.0 million. Refer to Note 17 – Subsequent Events for further detail. Management believes the executed Amended Credit Facility and intent and ability to complete the remaining cost mitigation plans alleviate uncertainty regarding the ability to meet its current obligations as they come due.
To the extent that the Company’s current resources, including its ability to generate operating cash flows, are insufficient to satisfy its cash requirements, the Company may seek additional equity or debt financing. The Company’s ability to do so depends on prevailing economic conditions and other factors, many of which are beyond management’s control. The Company does not currently have any such credit facilities or similar debt arrangements in place, outside of the Amended Credit Facility as described above, and cannot provide any assurance as to the availability or terms of any future financing that it may require to support its operations. If the needed financing is not available, or if the terms of financing are less desirable than expected, the Company may be forced to decrease its level of investment in new products and technologies, discontinue further expansion of the business, scale back its existing operations, or divest of assets, any of which could have an adverse impact on the Company and its financial prospects.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Due to the inherent uncertainties involved in making estimates, actual results could differ from the original estimates, and may require significant adjustments to these reported balances in future periods.
Foreign Currency Translation and Transactions
The Company’s reporting currency is the U.S. Dollar while the Company’s foreign subsidiaries use their local currencies as their functional currencies. The assets and liabilities of foreign subsidiaries are translated to U.S. Dollars based on the current exchange rate prevailing at each reporting period. Revenue and expenses are translated into U.S. Dollars using the average exchange rates prevailing for each period presented. Translation adjustments that arise from translating a foreign subsidiary’s financial statements from their functional currency to U.S. Dollars are reported as a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive loss in shareholders’ equity.
Gains and losses arising from transactions denominated in a currency other than the functional currency are included in general and administrative expense in the consolidated statements of operations as incurred. Foreign currency transaction and remeasurement gains and losses were a net loss of $969 and $993 for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
Concentration of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentration of credit risk consist primarily of its cash and trade receivables. The Company holds cash deposits in foreign countries, primarily in Northern Europe and Latin America, of approximately $36.8 million, which are subject to local banking laws and may bear higher or lower risk than cash deposited in the United States. Cash held in the United States is maintained in a major financial institution in excess of federally insured limits. As part of our cash management processes, the Company performs periodic evaluations of the credit standing of the financial institutions and we have not sustained any credit losses from instruments held at these financial institutions. Additionally, the Company maintains an allowance for potential credit losses, but historically has not experienced any significant losses related to individual customers or groups of customers in any particular geographic area.
Risks and Uncertainties
Macroeconomic conditions can materially adversely affect the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition. Recent adverse macroeconomic conditions, including inflation, higher interest rates, slower growth or recession, the strengthening of the U.S. dollar, and corresponding currency fluctuations can have an adverse material impact on the Company’s future results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition, particularly with respect to foreign currency adjustments relating to our international operations. Such conditions may also affect consumers’ willingness to make discretionary purchases, and therefore the Company, along with its casino operator customers, may experience a decline in wagering. A downturn in the economic environment can also lead to increased credit and collectibility risk on the Company’s trade receivables, limitations on the Company’s ability to issue new debt, and reduced liquidity.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
Revenue from B2B Operations
The Company’s revenue from its B2B operations are primarily from its internet gaming Software-as-a-Service (“SaaS”) platform, GameSTACK, that its customers use to provide real money internet gambling (“RMiG”), online sports gaming and simulated internet gaming (“SIM”) to its end users. The Company enters into contracts with its customers that generally range from three to five years and include renewal provisions. These contracts generally include provision of the internet gaming platform, content consisting of proprietary and third-party games, development services and support and marketing services. In certain cases, the contract may include computer hardware to be procured on behalf of the customer. The customers cannot take possession of the hosted GameSTACK software and the Company does not sell or license the GameSTACK software.
The Company charges fees as consideration for use of its internet gaming system, game content, support and marketing services based on a fixed percentage of the casino operator’s net gaming revenue or net sportsbook win, at the time of settlement of an event for RMiG contracts, considered usage-based fees, or at the time of purchase for in-game virtual credit for SIM contracts. The determination of the fee charged to its customers is negotiated and varies significantly. Certain of these RMiG contracts provide the Company with a minimum monthly revenue guarantee in relation to the Company’s share of the casino operator’s net gaming revenue or net sportsbook win. At December 31, 2022 and 2021, the remaining unsatisfied performance obligations related to fixed minimum guaranteed revenue totaled $3.9 million.
The Company’s promise to provide the RMiG SaaS platform and content licensing services on the hosted software is a single performance obligation. This performance obligation is recognized over time, as the Company provides services to its customers in its delivery of services to the player end user. The Company’s customers simultaneously receive and consume the benefits provided by the Company as it delivers services to its customers. Usage based fees are considered variable consideration as the service is to provide unlimited continuous access to its hosted application and usage of the hosted system is primarily controlled by the player end user. The transaction price includes fixed and variable consideration and is billed monthly with the amount due generally thirty days from the date of the invoice. Variable consideration is allocated entirely to the period in which consideration is earned as the variable amounts relate specifically to the customer’s usage of the platform that day and allocating the usage-based fees to each day is consistent with the allocation objective, primarily that the change in amounts reflect the changing value to the customer. The Company’s internet gaming system, game content, support and marketing services are provided equally throughout the term of the contract. These services are made up of a daily requirement to provide access and use of the internet gaming system and optional support and marketing services to the customer over the same period of time. The series of distinct services represents a single performance obligation that is satisfied over time.
Purchases of virtual credits within a transaction period on the SIM platform, generally a monthly convention, are earned over time, and are typically billed monthly upon the close of the respective period as the credit has no monetary value, cannot be redeemed, exchanged, transferred or withdrawn, represents solely a device for tracking game play during the month, does not obligate the Company to provide future services and the arrangements with the customer and player end user have no substantive termination penalty. In certain service agreements with its SIM customers, the fees collected by the Company from third-party payment processors for the purchases of in-game virtual credits made by end-users include the SIM customer’s portion. The Company records the SIM customer’s portion as a liability as cash is collected and remits payment to the SIM customer for their share of the SIM revenues monthly. At December 31, 2022 and 2021, the Company has recorded a liability due to its customers for their share of the fees of $1,628 and $2,171, respectively, within other current liabilities in the consolidated balance sheets.
The Company uses third-party content providers in supplying game content in its performance of providing game content on its platform to its customers. A customer has access to the Company’s propriety and licensed game content and additionally, the customer can direct the Company to procure third-party game content on its behalf. The Company has determined it acts as the principal for providing the game content when the Company controls the game content, and therefore presents the revenue on a gross basis in the consolidated statements of operations. When the customer directs the Company to procure third-party game content, the Company determined it is deemed an agent for providing such game content, and therefore, records the revenue, net of the costs of content license fees, in the consolidated statements of operations.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
The Company also provides ongoing development services involving updates to the RMiG platforms for enhanced functionality or customization. Ongoing development services are typically billed monthly, at a daily rate, for services performed. Revenue from RMiG platform development services that are identified as distinct performance obligations and enhance or create an asset the customer controls as the Company performs the services are recognized over time as services are performed. This revenue is measured using an input method based on effort expended, which uses direct labor hours incurred. These services have primarily related to post-launch development of third-party application integration software in the customer’s environment. Separately, the revenue generated from customers for development services that are distinct performance obligations and the customer benefits from the integrated SaaS offering are deferred over the license service term. These services have primarily related to enhancements to the Company’s platforms that do not enhance or create an asset the customer controls. In customer contracts that require a portion of the consideration to be received in advance, or at the commencement of the contract, such amounts are recorded as a contract liability.
Other services include the resale of a third-party computer hardware, such as servers and other related hardware devices, upon which the GameSTACK software is installed for its customers. These products are not required to be purchased in order to access the GameSTACK platform but are sold as a convenience to the customer. The Company procures the computer hardware on the customer’s behalf for a fee determined based on cost of the computer hardware plus a markup. The Company charges a hardware deployment fee which is a one-time fee for installation, testing and certification of the computer hardware at the gaming hosting facility. Revenue is recognized at the point in time when control of the hardware transfers to the customer. Control is transferred after the hardware has been procured, delivered, installed at the customer’s premises and configured to allow for remote access.
The Company has determined that it is acting as the principal in providing computer hardware and related services as it assumes responsibility for procuring, delivering, installing and configuring the hardware at the customer’s location and takes control of the hardware, prior to transfer. Revenue is presented at the gross amount of consideration to which it is entitled from the customer in exchange for the computer hardware and related services.
The Company generates revenue from time to time from the licensing of its U.S. patent, which governs the linkage of on-property reward cards to their counterpart internet gaming accounts together with bilateral transmission of reward points between the internet gaming technology system and the land-based casino management system present in all U.S. casino properties. The nature of the promise in transferring the license is to provide a right to use the patent as it exists. The Company does not have to undertake activities to change the functionality of the patent during the license period and the license has significant stand-alone functionality. Therefore, the Company recognizes the revenue from the license of the patent, at the point in time when control of the license is transferred to the customer. Control is determined to transfer at the point in time the customer is able to use and benefit from the license.
Contracts with Multiple Performance Obligations
For customer contracts that have more than one performance obligation, the transaction price is allocated to the performance obligations in an amount that depicts the relative stand-alone selling prices of each performance obligation. Judgment is required in determining the stand-alone selling price for each performance obligation. In determining the allocation of the transaction price, an entity is required to maximize the use of observable inputs. When the stand-alone selling price of a good or service is not directly observable, an entity is required to estimate the stand-alone selling price. Contracts with its customers may include platform and licensing of game content services, as well as development services and computer hardware services. The variable consideration generated from the platform and the licensing of game content is allocated entirely to the performance obligations for platform and licensing of game content services and the remaining fixed fees for development services and computer hardware would be allocated to each of the remaining performance obligation based on their relative stand-alone selling prices. The variable consideration relates entirely to the effort to satisfy the platform and licensing game content services and the fixed consideration relates to the remaining performance obligations which is consistent with the allocation objective.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
Revenue from Gaming Operations
The Company operates the B2C gaming site www.coolbet.com outside of the U.S., which contains proprietary software and includes the following product offerings: sportsbook, poker, casino, live casino and virtual sports.
The Company manages an online sportsbook allowing users to place various types of wagers on the outcome of sporting events conducted around the world. The Company operates as the bookmaker and offers fixed odds wagering on such events. When a user’s wager wins, the Company pays the user a pre-determined amount known as fixed odds. Revenue from online sportsbook is reported net after deduction of player winnings and bonuses. Revenue from wagers is recognized when the outcome of the event is known.
The Company offers live casino through its digital online casino offering in select markets, allowing users to place a wager and play games virtually at retail casinos. The Company offers users a catalog of over 3,000 third-party iGaming products such as digital slot machines and table games such as blackjack and roulette. Revenue from casino games is reported net after deduction of winnings, jackpot contribution and customer bonuses.
Peer-to-peer poker offerings allow users to play poker against one another on the Company’s online poker platform for prize money. Revenue is recognized as a percentage of the reported rake. Additionally, the Company offers tournament poker which allows users to buy-in for a fixed price for prize money. For tournament play, revenue is recognized for the difference between the entry fees collected and the amounts paid out to users as prizes and winnings.
In each of the online gaming products, a single performance obligation exists at the time a wager is made to operate the games and award prizes or payouts to users based on a particular outcome. Revenue is recognized at the conclusion of each contest, wager, or wagering game hand. Additionally, certain incentives given to users, for example, that allow the user to make an additional wager at a reduced price, may provide the user with a material right which gives rise to a separate performance obligation.
The Company allocates a portion of the user’s wager to incentives that create material rights that are redeemed or expired in the future. The allocated revenue for gaming wagers is primarily recognized when the wagers occur because all such wagers settle immediately.
The Company applies a practical expedient by accounting for revenue from gaming on a portfolio basis because such wagers have similar characteristics, and the Company reasonably expects the effects on the financial statements of applying the revenue recognition guidance to the portfolio to not differ materially from that which would result if applying the guidance to an individual wagering contract.
Cost of Revenue
Cost of revenue consists primarily of variable costs. These include mainly (i) content license fees, (ii) payment processing fees and chargebacks, (iii) platform technology, software, and connectivity costs directly associated with revenue generating activities, (iv) gaming duties, and (v) sportsbook feed / provider services. The Company incurs payment processing fees on B2C user deposits, withdrawals, and deposit reversals from payment processors. Cost of revenue excludes depreciation of the servers on which the Company’s gaming platforms reside as well as amortization of intangible assets including internally developed software.
Sales and Marketing
Sales and marketing expense primarily consists of general marketing and advertising costs, B2C user acquisition expenses and personnel costs within our sales and marketing functions. Sales and marketing costs are expensed as incurred.
Product and Technology
Product and technology expenses consist primarily of personnel costs associated with development and maintenance activities that are not capitalized. These costs primarily represent employee expenses (including but not limited to, salaries, bonus, employee benefits, employer tax expenses, and stock-based compensation) for personnel and contractors involved in the design, development, and project management of our proprietary technologies as well as developed and licensed content.
General and Administrative
General and administrative expenses consist of costs, including gaming operations costs, not related to sales and marketing, product and technology or revenue. General and administrative costs include professional services (including legal, regulatory and compliance, audit, and consulting expenses), rent, contingencies, insurance, allowance for credit losses, foreign currency transaction gains and losses, and costs related to the compensation of executive and non-executive personnel, including stock-based compensation.
Content Licensing Fees
Content licensing fees are paid to third parties for gaming content which are expensed as incurred. Content licensing fees are calculated as a percentage of net gaming revenues in respect of the third-party games, as stipulated in the third-party agreements.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
Share-based compensation expense is recognized for share options and restricted shares issued to employees and non-employee members of the Company’s Board of Directors. The Company’s issued share options and restricted shares, which are primarily considered equity awards and include only service conditions, are valued based on the fair value of these awards on the date of grant. The fair value of the share options is estimated using a Black-Scholes option pricing model and the fair value of the restricted shares (restricted share awards and restricted share units) is based on the market price of the Company’s shares on the date of grant.
Certain restricted share units awards issued to non-employee members of the Company’s Board of Directors permit shares upon vesting to be withheld, as a means of meeting the non-employee director’s tax withholding requirements, and paid in cash to the non-employee director. The Company additionally incurs share-based compensation expense under compensation arrangements with certain of its employees under which the Company will settle bonuses for a fixed dollar amount by issuing a variable number of shares based on the Company’s stock price on the settlement date. These awards are classified as liability-based awards which are measured based on the fair value of the award at the end of each reporting period until settled. Related compensation expense is recognized based on changes to the fair value over the applicable service period.
Share-based compensation is recorded over the requisite service period, generally defined as the vesting period. For awards with graded vesting and only service conditions, compensation cost is recorded on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the entire award. Forfeitures are recorded in the period in which they occur.
Basic loss per share is calculated by dividing the net loss by the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding during the year. In periods of loss, basic and diluted per share information are the same.
Cash is comprised of cash held at the bank and third-party service providers. The Company is required to maintain compensating cash balances to satisfy its liabilities to users. Such balances are included within cash in the consolidated balance sheets and are not subject to creditor claims. At December 31, 2022 and 2021, the related liabilities to users were $10,683 and $8,984, respectively.
Accounts Receivable, net
Accounts receivable are stated at invoiced amounts and are unsecured, non-interest bearing and generally have 30-day payment terms.
The Company maintains an allowance for doubtful accounts that reduces receivables to amounts expected to be collected. Management estimates the allowance for doubtful accounts by assessing the probability of non-payment of the receivable. On confirmation that the account receivable will not be collected, the gross carrying value of the asset is written off against the related allowance for doubtful accounts. The provision for credit losses on accounts receivable is recorded in general and administrative expense in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
The activity in the allowance for doubtful accounts was as follows:
SCHEDULE OF ALLOWANCE FOR DOUBTFUL ACCOUNTS
|Provision for expected credit losses||(34||)||246|
|Write-offs, net of recoveries||164||(226||)|
Capitalized Software Development Costs, net
The Company capitalizes certain development costs related to its internet gaming platforms during the application development stage. Costs associated with preliminary project activities, training, maintenance and all other post implementation stage activities are expensed as incurred. Software development costs are capitalized when application development begins, it is probable that the project will be completed, and the software will be used as intended. The Company capitalizes certain costs related to specific upgrades and enhancements when it is probable that expenditures will result in additional functionality of the platform to its customers. The capitalization policy provides for the capitalization of certain payroll and payroll related costs for employees who spent time directly associated with development and enhancements of the platform.
Capitalized software development costs are amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives, which generally ranges from three to five years, and are included within depreciation and amortization expense in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.
Goodwill represents the excess of the fair value of the consideration transferred over the estimated fair values of the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed on the acquisition date. The Company has recorded goodwill primarily from its acquisition of Coolbet in January 2021. Goodwill is not amortized, but rather is reviewed for impairment annually (as of October 1st) or more frequently if facts or circumstances indicate that it is more-likely-than-not the fair value of a reporting unit may be below its carrying amount.
The Company has determined that it has two reporting units: B2C and B2B. In its goodwill impairment testing in each segment, the Company has the option to perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more-likely-than-not that the fair value of the reporting unit, including goodwill, is less than its carrying amount prior to performing the quantitative impairment test. The qualitative assessment evaluates various events and circumstances, such as macro-economic conditions, industry and market conditions, cost factors, relevant events and financial trends that may impact a reporting unit’s fair value. If it is determined that the estimated fair value of the reporting unit is more-likely-than not less than its carrying amount, including goodwill, the quantitative goodwill impairment test is required. Otherwise, no further analysis would be required.
If the quantitative impairment test for goodwill is deemed necessary, this quantitative impairment analysis compares the fair value of the Company’s reporting unit to its related carrying value. If the fair value of the reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, goodwill is written down to the fair value and an impairment loss is recognized. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying amount, no further analysis is required. Fair value of the reporting unit is determined using valuation techniques, primarily using discounted cash flow analysis.
ASC Topic 350 requires that goodwill be tested for impairment between annual tests if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying amount. The Company performed a qualitative and quantitative impairment test as of June 30, 2022 which resulted in an impairment to goodwill of $28.9 million. The Company performed an additional qualitative assessment as of September 30, 2022 to determine whether events or circumstances such as those described in ASC 350-20-35-3C existed and concluded that, due to the significant and sustained decline in share price and market capitalization of the Company since the Coolbet acquisition, such triggers existed during the current interim period; therefore, an interim quantitative impairment test was performed. The Company did not recognize an additional impairment to goodwill as a result of its interim impairment test as of September 30, 2022, nor as a result of its annual impairment test as of October 1, 2022.
In December 2022, the Company revised its 2023 budget and long-term plan as a result of material reductions in its expected future cash flows from its B2B segment, a strategic decision not to pursue and invest further in its original content strategy, and a re-assessment of its growth strategy related to its B2C segment. As a result, the Company identified negative market indicators and trends related to the value of its reporting units. These events and circumstances indicated impairment may be probable and an additional quantitative goodwill impairment assessment as of December 31, 2022 was performed.
The Company estimated the fair value of all reporting units utilizing both a market approach and an income approach (discounted cash flow) and the significant assumptions used to measure fair value include discount rate, terminal value factors, revenue and EBITDA multiples, and control premiums.
The income approach used to test the Company’s reporting units includes the projection of estimated operating results and cash flows, discounted using a weighted-average cost of capital (“WACC”) that reflects current market conditions appropriate to each reporting unit. Those projections involve the Company’s best estimates of economic and market conditions over the projected period, including growth rates in revenues and costs and best estimates of future expected changes in operating margins and cash expenditures. Other significant assumptions and estimates used in the income approach include terminal value growth rates, future estimates of capital expenditures and changes in future working capital requirements. In addition, the WACC utilized to discount estimated future cash flows is sensitive to changes in interest rates and other market rates in place at the time the assessment is performed.
The market approach used to test the Company’s reporting units included the review of revenue and EBITDA multiples from other publicly traded companies in the industry used to derive their enterprise values and the application of those multiples to the relevant earnings streams within each reportable segment of the Company.
The Company confirmed the reasonableness of the estimated reporting unit fair values under the income and market approaches by reconciling those fair values to its enterprise value and market capitalization. Data points from other market participants were additionally used which indicated that the lower end of valuation ranges related to our B2C segment may be indicated until regulatory uncertainties were clarified.
As a result of its impairment test performed as of December 31, 2022, the Company recognized an impairment to goodwill of $108.0 million. During the year ended December 31, 2022, the Company recognized total impairment to goodwill of $136.9 million. No such impairment was recognized during the year ended December 31, 2021.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
Long-lived assets, except goodwill, consist of property and equipment, and finite lived acquired intangible assets, such as developed software, gaming licenses, trademarks, trade names and customer relationships. Intangible assets are amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. The Company considers the period of expected cash flows and underlying data used to measure the fair value of the intangible assets when selecting the estimated useful lives.
Gaming licenses include license applications fees and market access payments in connection with agreements that the Company enters into with strategic partners. The market access arrangements authorize the Company to offer online gaming and online sports betting in certain regulated markets. These costs are capitalized and amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives, beginning with the commencement of operations.
The fair value of the acquired intangible assets is primarily determined using the income approach. In performing these valuations, the Company’s key underlying assumptions used in the discounted cash flows were projected revenue, gross margin expectations and operating cost estimates. There are inherent uncertainties and management judgment is required in these valuations.
Long-lived assets, except goodwill, are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. If circumstances require a long-lived asset or asset group to be tested for possible impairment, the Company compares the undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by that asset or asset group to their carrying amount. If the carrying amount of the long-lived asset or asset group are not recoverable on an undiscounted cash flow basis, an impairment charge is recognized to the extent that the carrying amount exceeds fair value. Fair value is determined through various techniques, such as discounted cash flow models using probability weighted estimated future cash flows and the use of valuation specialists.
In December 2022, the Company revised its 2023 budget and long-range plan as a result of material reductions in its expected future cash flows from its B2B segment, a strategic decision not to pursue and invest further in its original content strategy, and a re-assessment of its growth strategy related to its B2C segment. In connection with these initiatives, the Company began planning to sunset certain of its legacy GameSTACK technology (the “Legacy Technology”) following the launch of GAN Sports and the rollout of newer GameSTACK technology developed after its acquisition of Coolbet. These events and circumstances indicated that the carrying amount of the Company’s long-lived assets may not be recoverable and the Company tested these assets for impairment. During the year ended December 31, 2022 the Company recognized an impairment to its intangible assets and capitalized software development costs of $19.1 million and $10.0 million, respectively. There were no such triggering events during the year ended December 31, 2021. Refer to Note 5 – Capitalized Software Development Costs, net and Note 6 – Goodwill and Intangible Assets for further detail.
Liabilities to Users
The Company records liabilities for user account balances. User account balances consist of user deposits, promotional awards and user winnings less user withdrawals and user losses.
Legal Contingencies and Litigation Accruals
On a quarterly basis, the Company assesses potential losses in relation to pending or threatened legal matters. If a loss is considered probable and the amount can be reasonably estimated, the Company recognizes an expense for the estimated loss. Estimates of any such loss are subjective in nature and require the evaluation of numerous facts and assumptions as to future events, including the application of legal precedent which may be conflicting. To the extent these estimates are more or less than the actual liability resulting from the resolution of these matters, the Company’s financial results will increase or decrease accordingly.
Debt issuance costs incurred in connection with the issuance of new debt are recorded as a reduction to the long-term debt balance on the consolidated balance sheets, and amortized over the term of the loan commitment as interest expense in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations. The Company calculates amortization expense on capitalized debt issuance costs using the effective interest method in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 470, Debt.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company applies the provisions of ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures, which provides a single authoritative definition of fair value, sets out a framework for measuring fair value and expands on required disclosures about fair value measurement. Fair value represents the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. The Company uses the following hierarchy in measuring the fair value of the Company’s assets and liabilities, focusing on the most observable inputs when available:
|●||Level 1 Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.|
|●||Level 2 Observable inputs other than Level 1 quoted prices, such as quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, quoted prices in markets that are not active for identical or similar assets and liabilities, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.|
|●||Level 3 Valuations are based on the inputs that are unobservable and significant to the overall fair value measurement of the assets or liabilities. Inputs reflect management’s best estimate of what market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability at the measurement date. Consideration is given to the risk inherent in the valuation technique and the risk inherent in the inputs to the model.|
Valuation techniques used to measure the fair value must maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs.
The Company does not hold any Level 1 or Level 2 financial instruments. The Company’s contingent content liability initially recognized in April 2022 is the Company’s only Level 3 financial instrument.
The contingent content liability represents additional amounts which the Company expects to pay to Ainsworth Game Technology, a third-party gaming content provider (“the Content Provider”) if the Company’s total revenue generated from its Content Licensing Agreement with the Content Provider exceeds certain stipulated annual and cumulative thresholds during the contract term. The fair value of the contingent content liability is determined using Level 3 inputs, since estimating the fair value of this contingent content liability requires the use of significant and subjective inputs that may and are likely to change over the duration of the liability with related changes in internally generated anticipated games revenue as well as external market factors. The contingent content liability was valued using a Monte Carlo simulation based on management’s anticipated annual games revenue forecasts. The fair value of the contingent content liability was initially recognized in April 2022 in connection with its modified arrangement with the Content Provider on April 5, 2022. Contingent consideration is revalued at each reporting period. In the fourth quarter of 2022, the Company entered into negotiations with the Content Provider and in March 2023 amended and restated its Content Licensing Agreement with the Content Provider which resulted in a reduced contact term. As a result, the Company concluded the fair value of the contingent consideration was not probable of being met and reduced to zero based upon the remaining contract term and related expected future cash flows, recorded within other income, net on the accompanying consolidated statements of operations. Refer to Note 3 – Acquisition and Note 17 – Subsequent Events for further detail.
The following table provides a reconciliation of the Company’s contingent content liability that is measured at fair value on a recurring basis using significant and subjective inputs (Level 3) as required by ASC 820 as of December 31, 2022:
SCHEDULE OF FAIR VALUE OF ASSETS AND LIABILITIES ON RECURRING BASIS
|Balance as of January 1, 2022||$|
|Contingent consideration for content licensing agreement||3,000|
|Reduction in fair value of contingent consideration||(3,000||)|
|Balance as of December 31, 2022||$|
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
The Company is subject to income taxes in the United States, U.K., Bulgaria, Israel, Canada, and Malta. The Company records an income tax expense for the anticipated tax consequences of the reported results of operations using the asset and liability method. Under this method, deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities, as well as for loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the tax rates that are expected to apply to taxable income for the years in which those tax assets and liabilities are expected to be realized or settled. The effect on deferred income tax of a change in tax rates are recorded in the period of the enactment. Deferred tax assets are reduced, through a valuation allowance, if necessary, by the amount of such benefits that are not expected to be realized based on current available evidence. In evaluating the Company’s ability to recover deferred tax assets in the jurisdiction from which they arise, all available positive and negative evidence is considered, including results of recent operations, scheduled reversals of deferred tax liabilities, projected future taxable income, and tax-planning strategies. The Company records a valuation allowance to reduce its deferred tax assets to the net amount that it believes is more likely than not to be realized.
The Company recognizes tax benefits from uncertain tax positions only if management believes that it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities based on the technical merits of the position. Although the Company believes that it has adequately provided for uncertain tax positions, no assurance can be given that the final tax outcome of these matters would not be materially different. Adjustments are made when facts and circumstances change, such as the closing of a tax audit or the refinement of an estimate. To the extent that the final tax outcome of these matters is different than the amounts recorded, such differences would affect the provision for income taxes in the period in which such determination is made and could have a material impact on the Company’s financial condition and operating results. The Company recognizes penalties and interest related to income tax matters in income tax expense.
The Company operates in two operating segments, B2B and B2C. Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise where separate financial information is evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision maker (“CODM”) in deciding how to allocate resources and assess the Company’s performance. The Company’s CODM is the Chief Executive Officer. The CODM allocates resources and assesses performance based upon discrete financial information at the operating segment level.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
In October 2021, the Financial Accounting Standards Board issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2021-08, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Accounting for Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities from Contracts with Customers. ASU 2021-08 requires an acquirer to measure and recognize contract assets and contract liabilities acquired in a business combination in accordance with ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, rather than using fair value on the acquisition date. This amendment is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, including interim periods within those annual periods, and should be applied prospectively to business combinations occurring on or after the effective date. Early adoption is permitted. The Company will apply the amended guidance on a prospective basis to business combinations that occur on or after January 1, 2023.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
NOTE 3 — ACQUISITION
Content licensing agreement with Ainsworth Game Technology
In the second quarter of 2021, the Company entered into a Content Licensing Agreement (the “Agreement”) with Ainsworth Game Technology, a third-party gaming content provider (the “Content Provider”) specializing in developing and licensing interactive games. The Agreement grants the Company exclusive rights to use and distribute the online gaming content in North America, and the Content Provider is committed to developing a minimum number of games for the Company’s exclusive use over a five-year term, subject to extensions.
On April 5, 2022, the Company amended and restated the Agreement. In accordance with the restated arrangement, the Company amended certain commercial terms, which included obtaining the contractual right to lease the remote gaming servers, taking possession of the related software, and obtaining a service contract from the Content Provider for the duration of the arrangement. The total fixed fees remaining under the amended arrangement totaled $25.0 million, of which $10.0 million was due during the year ended December 31, 2022 with $5.0 million due in each of the years 2023 through 2025. Fixed fee payments are presented in the accompanying consolidated statements of cash flows as payments for content licensing arrangements within cash flows from investing activities. Additional payments could be required if the Company’s total revenue generated from the arrangement exceed certain stipulated annual and cumulative thresholds during the contract term.
The amended and restated Agreement is accounted for as a business combination as the assets acquired and the liabilities assumed under the arrangement constitute a business in accordance with ASC 805, Business Combinations. Consideration transferred is comprised of the present value of the Company’s total expected fixed payments under the Agreement, the net assets recognized under the original agreement, as well as a contingent consideration.
The following table summarizes the fair value of the consideration transferred:
SUMMARY OF CONSIDERATION TRANSFERRED
|Present value of future fixed fee payments||$||18,808|
|Net assets recognized under original agreement||3,067|
The contingent consideration represents additional amounts which the Company expects to pay to the Content Provider if the Company’s total revenue generated from the arrangement exceed certain stipulated annual and cumulative thresholds during the contract term. The maximum amount of the payment is unlimited as it is determined based on the Company’s performance over the related games revenue over the arrangement term. The fair value of the contingent consideration is determined using Level 3 inputs, since estimating the fair value of this contingent consideration requires the use of significant and subjective inputs that may and are likely to change over the duration of the liability with related changes in internally generated anticipated games revenue as well as external market factors. The contingent consideration was valued using a Monte Carlo simulation based on management’s anticipated annual games revenue forecasts.
Identifiable assets and liabilities assumed at fair value were entirely comprised of intangible assets acquired as part of the content licensing arrangement. The fair values of intangible assets were estimated using inputs classified as Level 3 under the income approach using either the royalty income method (content licenses) or the multi-period excess earnings method (customer relationships). In December 2022, the Company finalized its purchase price allocation which resulted in a measurement period adjustment to the initial amounts recorded, including a decrease to the contingent liability by $1,369. Additionally, there was an adjustment to decrease the values assigned to the content licenses intangible asset and the customer relationship intangible asset by $931 and $438, respectively, and to derecognize the acquired right of use lease asset and liability assumed, totaling $116. The changes in the value of the intangible assets resulted in a decrease in amortization expense of $234 during the year ended December 31, 2022.
Identifiable intangible assets, including their respective expected useful lives, and liabilities assumed were as follows:
SUMMARY OF INTANGIBLE ASSETS ACQUIRED
life (in years)
|Content licenses intangible asset||4.6||$||22,007|
|Customer relationships intangible asset||4.0||2,868|
|Total identifiable net assets||$||24,875|
In addition to these assets acquired, a service contract was entered into with the Content Provider valued at approximately $1.4 million which will be expensed over the service period of approximately five years.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
NOTE 4 — PROPERTY AND EQUIPMENT, NET
Property and equipment, net is recorded in other assets in the consolidated balance sheets at December 31, 2022 and 2021 and consisted of the following:
SCHEDULE OF PROPERTY AND EQUIPMENT
|Life (in years)||2022||2021|
|Estimated Useful||December 31,|
|Life (in years)||2022||2021|
|Fixtures, fittings and equipment||3 - 5||$||4,136||$||2,935|